The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration.
The MAPK signaling pathway is essential in regulating many cellular processes including inflammation, cell stress response, cell differentiation, cell division, cell proliferation, metabolism, motility and apoptosis. The role of the MAPK pathway in cancer, immune disorders and neurodegenerative diseases has been well recognized.
Mammals express at least four distinctly regulated groups of MAPKs, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK)-1/2, Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 proteins (p38alpha/beta/gamma/delta) and ERK5 that are activated by specific MAPKKs: MEK1/2 for ERK1/2, MKK3/6 for the p38, MKK4/7 (JNKK1/2) for the JNKs, and MEK5 for ERK5.
But each MAPKK can be activated by more than one MAPKKK, increasing the complexity and diversity of MAPK signaling. Presumably each MAPKKK confers responsiveness to distinct stimuli. As shown in the following picture, Classical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation begins at the cell membrane where small GTPases and various protein kinases phosphorylate MAPKKKs. Subsequently, MAPKKKs directly phosphorylate and activate MAPKKs. Once phosphorylated, activated MAPKs phosphorylate numerous cytoplasmic substrates and ultimately modulate transcription factors that drive context-specific gene expression.
Although MAPK signaling cascades are depicted as simple linear, unidirectional groups of protein kinases, the pathway is highly complex, actually. A large degree of cross-talk within the MAPK cascades and other signaling networks exists. For example, interactions between mediators of the MAPK, PI3K networks, NFκB pathway and JAK-STAT pathway are well documented.
|MAP3K7||MAP3K7 Antibody||MAP3K7 Protein||MAP3K7 cDNA||MAP3K7 ELISA Kit|
|MAP3K8||MAP3K8 Antibody||MAP3K8 Protein||MAP3K8 cDNA||MAP3K8 ELISA Kit|
|MAP4K1||MAP4K1 Antibody||MAP4K1 Protein||MAP4K1 cDNA||MAP4K1 ELISA Kit|
|MAP4K2||MAP4K2 Antibody||MAP4K2 Protein||MAP4K2 cDNA||MAP4K2 ELISA Kit|
|MAP4K3||MAP4K3 Antibody||MAP4K3 Protein||MAP4K3 cDNA||MAP4K3 ELISA Kit|
|MAP4K4||MAP4K4 Antibody||MAP4K4 Protein||MAP4K4 cDNA||MAP4K4 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK1||MAPK1 Antibody||MAPK1 Protein||MAPK1 cDNA||MAPK1 ELISA Kit|
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|MAPK12||MAPK12 Antibody||MAPK12 Protein||MAPK12 cDNA||MAPK12 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK13||MAPK13 Antibody||MAPK13 Protein||MAPK13 cDNA||MAPK13 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK14||MAPK14 Antibody||MAPK14 Protein||MAPK14 cDNA||MAPK14 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK3||MAPK3 Antibody||MAPK3 Protein||MAPK3 cDNA||MAPK3 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK7||MAPK7 Antibody||MAPK7 Protein||MAPK7 cDNA||MAPK7 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK8||MAPK8 Antibody||MAPK8 Protein||MAPK8 cDNA||MAPK8 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK8IP1||MAPK8IP1 Antibody||MAPK8IP1 Protein||MAPK8IP1 cDNA||MAPK8IP1 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK8IP2||MAPK8IP2 Antibody||MAPK8IP2 Protein||MAPK8IP2 cDNA||MAPK8IP2 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK8IP3||MAPK8IP3 Antibody||MAPK8IP3 Protein||MAPK8IP3 cDNA||MAPK8IP3 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK9||MAPK9 Antibody||MAPK9 Protein||MAPK9 cDNA||MAPK9 ELISA Kit|
|MAPKAPK2||MAPKAPK2 Antibody||MAPKAPK2 Protein||MAPKAPK2 cDNA||MAPKAPK2 ELISA Kit|