CDH1

What is CDH1?

Cadherin-1 (CDH1) is also called E-cadherin (E-CD), CD antigen (CD324), uvomorulin (UVO), ECAD and CDHE. It is a member of the cadherin family, which is a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule. E-cadherin is a kind of homogenous calcium-dependent transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates cell-to-cell adhesion. Its main function is to mediate specific adhesion and plays a key role in the formation and maintenance of epithelial tissue. E-cadherin is a tumor suppressor. Studies have shown that it plays an important role in the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of tumor, and has become one of the important topics in the study of molecular mechanism of tumor metastasis.

The Structure of CDH1

The human E-CD gene is located at 16q22.1 and encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein of 882 amino acids.

Mature E-cadherin has three main domains: a cytoplasmic domain with 150 amino acid residues, a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular domain with 550 amino acids.

The extracellular region is composed of five repeating tandem structural units (CAD1-CAD5), which is a common feature of cadherin family proteins. Each unit consists of about 110 amino acid residues, that is, the extracellular part consists of 533 amino acid residues. The CAD1 region can specifically bind to Ca2+, and this region contains a conserved his-Ala-VaL (HAV) that determines the homotropism and specificity of E-CD.

The cytoplasmic region of E-CD reacts with catenin α, β and γ to form the cadherin-catenin complex (CCC). This domain is connected to the actin filament (aetin) of the cytoskeleton through catenin and participates in Wnt signal transduction.

The mutagenesis of catenin α and β plays an important role in the function of E-CD. The mutation of α-catenin gene or tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin can lead to the inactivation of E-CD-mediated cell adhesion system.

The Expression of CDH1

Epithelial cadherin exists on the surface of almost all epithelial cells and is the main type of cell-cell adhesion molecules.

In addition, E-cadherin is also widely expressed in epithelial cells of colon, uterus, liver, keratinocytes, brain, heart, muscle, kidney and pancreas, as well as erythroid cells and plasma membrane.

The Function of CDH1

CDH1 is a Ca2+-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Its main function is to mediate specific adhesion between homologous cells and plays an important role in maintaining the structure and function of epithelial tissue. As a cell adhesion molecule, it is involved in development, bacterial pathogenesis and tumor invasion.

The decrease of adhesion between tumor cells is one of the important reasons for the occurrence and development of tumor. CDH1 is considered to be a tumor suppressor gene and tumor metastasis suppressor gene. The loss of CDH1 gene in tumor cells can increase the potential of invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. The low expression of E-cadherin reduces the adhesion between tumor cells, and the tumor cells are easy to fall off from the local area and then metastasize, so it is considered that E-cadherin is a tumor metastasis inhibitory factor.

CDH1 is closely related to the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors of various epithelial sources. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin was found in a variety of epithelial tumors (breast cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, oral cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, thyroid cancer, bladder cancer and lung cancer, etc.).

Latest Research Progress

It is generally believed that E-CD is a tumor metastasis inhibitory factor. Recently, a study has come up with different results. This study shows that E-cadherin is required for metastasis in multiple models of breast cancer.

The researcher tested the genetic requirement for E-cadherin in metastasis using mouse and human models of both luminal and basal invasive ductal carcinomas.

The results reveal that E-cadherin acts as a survival factor in invasive ductal carcinomas during the detachment, systemic dissemination and seeding phases of metastasis by limiting reactive oxygen-mediated apoptosis. Identifying molecular strategies to inhibit E-cadherin-mediated survival in metastatic breast cancer cells may have potential as a therapeutic approach for breast cancer.

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CDH1 ELISA Kit for Homo sapiens (Human)

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