Transmembrane proteins cross the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane, which determines the strong hydrophobicity of the transmembrane region. The transmembrane region of a transmembrane protein is completely or partially inserted into the membrane. The diversity of transmembrane proteins determines the diversity of their functional characteristics. It has the ability of material transport and signal transduction. In addition, transmembrane proteins also play an important role in the immune response.
Human leukocyte antigen is a kind of transmembrane protein, which is a protein or antigen present on the cell surface of the body. It plays a key role in the body's immune defense. The HLA system and MHC help the body's immune system distinguish between autologous substances and foreign or non-autologous substances.
HLA antigen has different distribution in different nationalities. Take HLA-B*27 as an example. In the US Columbia, Canadian coastal Indians and Canadian haida people, its positive rate is as high as 50%; among caucasians in Europe and the United States, the B27 positive rate was 6 to 8 percent; while the positive rate of B27 in Japanese and African blacks was less than 1%.
The clinical application of HLA is mainly the matching of donor and recipient in organ transplantation and blood transfusion.
In organ transplantation, the donor and the recipient must have the same or matching HLA gene, so that the donor tissue is not attacked or rejected by the recipient's immune system.
In clinical transfusion, allogeneic HLA immunity causes various problems in transfusion therapy, such as platelet transfusion refractoriness, fever-induced non-hemolytic transfusion reaction, transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-related graft-versus host disease, etc. Therefore, HLA detection is necessary.
The HLA gene is associated with autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Many studies have shown that HLA is associated with HIV disease. In addition, HLA is strongly associated with recurrent miscarriage during pregnancy, pre-eclampsia, or hemolytic disease in the newborn. HLA is also one of the causes of drug sensitivity.
If you are interested in this topic, and want to know more details, like Antigen Processing Pathway, Population Distribution, Polymorphism of HLA, etc., please read the article, Human Leukocyte Antigen: Distinguish between Friend and Foe.
In your experiment, you may need HLA products to assist your research. CUSABIO can help you. We have established a special transmembrane protein expression system. HLA related products are listed as follows: