What Are Immune Checkpoint Proteins?
What Are Immune Checkpoint Proteins?As described in the question- What is an immune checkpoint? Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system. These immune checkpoints are crucial for self-tolerance, which prevents the immune system from attacking...
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What Are Immune Checkpoint Pathways?
What Are Immune Checkpoint Pathways?Tumor immune micro-environment includes a wide range of complex interactions between tumor cell, immune cells (antigen presenting cells, T cell, NK cell, B cell, etc.), and tumor stroma. Host immune response against tumo...
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A "trembling" Parkinson's DiseaseParkinson's disease (PD), also known as parkinsonism, is a complex neurodegenerative disease (also known as cognitive disorder) second only to Alzheimer's disease [1], which mainly affects the neurons of dopamine product...
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One World, One Hope——What Can We Do about AIDS?
One World, One Hope——What Can We Do about AIDS?Figure 1 AIDS Red Ribbon Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that belongs to the class of retroviruses. HIV is a virus that attacks the body's immune system. It takes CD4 T lymphocytes, th...
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What You Should Know The Common Sense of Neurodegeneration
What You Should Know The Common Sense of NeurodegenerationNeurodegeneration is a series of neurological diseases caused by the loss of nerve structure and function and will be worsen over time. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) are highly damaging brain lesions and have graduall...
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The Overview of Organelles
The Overview of OrganellesAn organelle is a specialized subunit that performs specific functions within a cell. Organelles are embedded within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In the more complex eukaryotic cells, organelles are...
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Do You Really Know TGF-β Superfamily?
Do You Really Know TGF-β Superfamily?Since the discovery of the first member of TGF-β family in the early 1980s, related members have been identified and functionally characterized, in a superfamily now numbering more than 30 ligands in mammals. The TGF-β ...
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Double-Edged Sword: TGF-β
Double-Edged Sword: TGF-βTGF-β is a growth factor with multi-function on target cells. Almost every cell in the body produces TGF-β and has its receptor. It plays an important regulatory role in the differentiation of tissues and cells, and ca...
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PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway and Cancer
PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway and CancerThe phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is an intracellular signal transduction pathway important in regulating metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis and is activated b...
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The Encyclopedia of Common Virus
The Encyclopedia of Common VirusVirus, a small size and simple composition infectious agent that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria. The name is derived from a Latin word meaning "slimy liquid" or "poison". Originally, vi...
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