Autophagy is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components, involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. In mammals, amino acid sensing and additional signals such as growth factors and reactive oxygen species regulate the activity of the protein kinases mTOR and AMPK. These two kinases regulate autophagy through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2. Induction of autophagy results in the dephosphorylation and activation of the ULK kinases. Autophagy is upregulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation, ER stress, and pathogen infection. Defective autophagy plays a significant role in human pathologies, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and infectious diseases.
|ULK2||ULK2 Antibody||ULK2 Protein||ULK2 cDNA||ULK2 ELISA Kit|
|UVRAG||UVRAG Antibody||UVRAG Protein||UVRAG cDNA||UVRAG ELISA Kit|
|VAMP8||VAMP8 Antibody||VAMP8 Protein||VAMP8 cDNA||VAMP8 ELISA Kit|
|VMP1||VMP1 Antibody||VMP1 Protein||VMP1 cDNA||VMP1 ELISA Kit|
|WIPI1||WIPI1 Antibody||WIPI1 Protein||WIPI1 cDNA||WIPI1 ELISA Kit|
|WIPI2||WIPI2 Antibody||WIPI2 Protein||WIPI2 cDNA||WIPI2 ELISA Kit|
|ZFYVE1||ZFYVE1 Antibody||ZFYVE1 Protein||ZFYVE1 cDNA||ZFYVE1 ELISA Kit|
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