Autophagy is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components, involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. In mammals, amino acid sensing and additional signals such as growth factors and reactive oxygen species regulate the activity of the protein kinases mTOR and AMPK. These two kinases regulate autophagy through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2. Induction of autophagy results in the dephosphorylation and activation of the ULK kinases. Autophagy is upregulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation, ER stress, and pathogen infection. Defective autophagy plays a significant role in human pathologies, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and infectious diseases.
|PIK3R2||PIK3R2 Antibody||PIK3R2 Protein||PIK3R2 cDNA||PIK3R2 ELISA Kit|
|PIK3R3||PIK3R3 Antibody||PIK3R3 Protein||PIK3R3 cDNA||PIK3R3 ELISA Kit|
|PIK3R4||PIK3R4 Antibody||PIK3R4 Protein||PIK3R4 cDNA||PIK3R4 ELISA Kit|
|PPP2CA||PPP2CA Antibody||PPP2CA Protein||PPP2CA cDNA||PPP2CA ELISA Kit|
|PPP2CB||PPP2CB Antibody||PPP2CB Protein||PPP2CB cDNA||PPP2CB ELISA Kit|
|PRAP1||PRAP1 Antibody||PRAP1 Protein||PRAP1 cDNA||PRAP1 ELISA Kit|
|PRKAA1||PRKAA1 Antibody||PRKAA1 Protein||PRKAA1 cDNA||PRKAA1 ELISA Kit|
|PRKAA2||PRKAA2 Antibody||PRKAA2 Protein||PRKAA2 cDNA||PRKAA2 ELISA Kit|
|PRKACA||PRKACA Antibody||PRKACA Protein||PRKACA cDNA||PRKACA ELISA Kit|
|PRKACB||PRKACB Antibody||PRKACB Protein||PRKACB cDNA||PRKACB ELISA Kit|
|PRKACG||PRKACG Antibody||PRKACG Protein||PRKACG cDNA||PRKACG ELISA Kit|
|PRKCD||PRKCD Antibody||PRKCD Protein||PRKCD cDNA||PRKCD ELISA Kit|
|PRKCQ||PRKCQ Antibody||PRKCQ Protein||PRKCQ cDNA||PRKCQ ELISA Kit|
|PTEN||PTEN Antibody||PTEN Protein||PTEN cDNA||PTEN ELISA Kit|
|RAB33B||RAB33B Antibody||RAB33B Protein||RAB33B cDNA||RAB33B ELISA Kit|
|RAB7A||RAB7A Antibody||RAB7A Protein||RAB7A cDNA||RAB7A ELISA Kit|
|RAB7B||RAB7B Antibody||RAB7B Protein||RAB7B cDNA||RAB7B ELISA Kit|
|RAF1||RAF1 Antibody||RAF1 Protein||RAF1 cDNA||RAF1 ELISA Kit|
|RB1CC1||RB1CC1 Antibody||RB1CC1 Protein||RB1CC1 cDNA||RB1CC1 ELISA Kit|
|RHEB||RHEB Antibody||RHEB Protein||RHEB cDNA||RHEB ELISA Kit|
Join the 25,000 subscribers to get research hotpots, technical tips, latest information on events, sales and offers.
Sign up now!
We don't deal in spam.