Autophagy is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components, involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. In mammals, amino acid sensing and additional signals such as growth factors and reactive oxygen species regulate the activity of the protein kinases mTOR and AMPK. These two kinases regulate autophagy through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2. Induction of autophagy results in the dephosphorylation and activation of the ULK kinases. Autophagy is upregulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation, ER stress, and pathogen infection. Defective autophagy plays a significant role in human pathologies, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and infectious diseases.
|RPS6KB1||RPS6KB1 Antibody||RPS6KB1 Protein||RPS6KB1 cDNA||RPS6KB1 ELISA Kit|
|RPS6KB2||RPS6KB2 Antibody||RPS6KB2 Protein||RPS6KB2 cDNA||RPS6KB2 ELISA Kit|
|RPTOR||RPTOR Antibody||RPTOR Protein||RPTOR cDNA||RPTOR ELISA Kit|
|RRAGA||RRAGA Antibody||RRAGA Protein||RRAGA cDNA||RRAGA ELISA Kit|
|RRAGB||RRAGB Antibody||RRAGB Protein||RRAGB cDNA||RRAGB ELISA Kit|
|RRAGC||RRAGC Antibody||RRAGC Protein||RRAGC cDNA||RRAGC ELISA Kit|
|RRAGD||RRAGD Antibody||RRAGD Protein||RRAGD cDNA||RRAGD ELISA Kit|
|RRAS||RRAS Antibody||RRAS Protein||RRAS cDNA||RRAS ELISA Kit|
|RRAS2||RRAS2 Antibody||RRAS2 Protein||RRAS2 cDNA||RRAS2 ELISA Kit|
|RUBCN||RUBCN Antibody||RUBCN Protein||RUBCN cDNA||RUBCN ELISA Kit|
|SH3GLB1||SH3GLB1 Antibody||SH3GLB1 Protein||SH3GLB1 cDNA||SH3GLB1 ELISA Kit|
|SNAP29||SNAP29 Antibody||SNAP29 Protein||SNAP29 cDNA||SNAP29 ELISA Kit|
|STK11||STK11 Antibody||STK11 Protein||STK11 cDNA||STK11 ELISA Kit|
|STX17||STX17 Antibody||STX17 Protein||STX17 cDNA||STX17 ELISA Kit|
|SUPT20H||SUPT20H Antibody||SUPT20H Protein||SUPT20H cDNA||SUPT20H ELISA Kit|
|TP53INP2||TP53INP2 Antibody||TP53INP2 Protein||TP53INP2 cDNA||TP53INP2 ELISA Kit|
|TRAF6||TRAF6 Antibody||TRAF6 Protein||TRAF6 cDNA||TRAF6 ELISA Kit|
|TSC1||TSC1 Antibody||TSC1 Protein||TSC1 cDNA||TSC1 ELISA Kit|
|TSC2||TSC2 Antibody||TSC2 Protein||TSC2 cDNA||TSC2 ELISA Kit|
|ULK1||ULK1 Antibody||ULK1 Protein||ULK1 cDNA||ULK1 ELISA Kit|
Join the 25,000 subscribers to get research hotpots, technical tips, latest information on events, sales and offers.
Sign up now!
We don't deal in spam.