Rap1, referred to as Ras-associated protein 1, is a small G protein that belongs to the Ras superfamily. Rap1 has two isoforms: Rap1A and Rap1B. Like other G proteins, Rap1 is active when bound to GTP but inactive when bound to GDP.
In the Rap1 signaling pathway, the activation of Rap1 by some stimuli recruits many effectors, leading to its involvement in integrin signaling, ERK activation, and other important cellular processes.
The Rap1 signaling pathway exists in many important cellular processes such as the information and control of cell adhesion and cell junction, cell migration, polarization, and cell proliferation ＆ survival.
Rap1 usually binds to GDP and is under an inactive form of Rap1-GDP. Rap1 is activated when GTP replaces GDP in the complex Rap1-GDP through guanylate exchange factors (GEFs). While GAP (GTPase activating protein) deactivates active Rap1-GTP. By switching between the two conformations, Rap1 acts as a molecular switch that regulates the cell's response to external stimuli.
The second messenger cAMP stimulates Epac1, one of RapGEFs, which activates Epac1 to relocate to the plasma membrane, activating Epac-Rap1 signal and enhancing integrin-mediated cell adhesion. And Rap1 interacts with Tiam1 and Vav2 to activate Rac and CDC42, modulating cell polarization and movement. Furthermore, B-Raf, the Rap1 effector, can mediate ERK activation, which triggers the Rap1-MAPK signaling pathway, regulating cell proliferation and survival. In addition, the regulation of PI3K/Akt by Rap1 is also an important mechanism in the control of cell survival and proliferation.
When Rap1GAP and SIPA1, the inhibitors of Rap1, bind to Rap1, Rap1-GTP recovers to inactive Rap1-GDP, ending cellular responses to various stimuli.
As everyone knows, metastasis and invasion of tumor cells are the main causes of death of most cancers. Rap1 is a crucial player in the process of tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Rap1 plays an important role in tumor progression. And Rap1 is found to be over-activated in many kinds of tumors and is involved in the initiation, development, and metastasis of certain tumors such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma. But Rap1 has the opposite effect in the cancers of bladder, lung, and brain.
|PRKCZ||PRKCZ Antibody||PRKCZ Protein||PRKCZ cDNA||PRKCZ ELISA Kit|
|PRKD1||PRKD1 Antibody||PRKD1 Protein||PRKD1 cDNA||PRKD1 ELISA Kit|
|PRKD2||PRKD2 Antibody||PRKD2 Protein||PRKD2 cDNA||PRKD2 ELISA Kit|
|PRKD3||PRKD3 Antibody||PRKD3 Protein||PRKD3 cDNA||PRKD3 ELISA Kit|
|RAC1||RAC1 Antibody||RAC1 Protein||RAC1 cDNA||RAC1 ELISA Kit|
|RAC2||RAC2 Antibody||RAC2 Protein||RAC2 cDNA||RAC2 ELISA Kit|
|RAC3||RAC3 Antibody||RAC3 Protein||RAC3 cDNA||RAC3 ELISA Kit|
|RAF1||RAF1 Antibody||RAF1 Protein||RAF1 cDNA||RAF1 ELISA Kit|
|RALA||RALA Antibody||RALA Protein||RALA cDNA||RALA ELISA Kit|
|RALB||RALB Antibody||RALB Protein||RALB cDNA||RALB ELISA Kit|
|RALGDS||RALGDS Antibody||RALGDS Protein||RALGDS cDNA||RALGDS ELISA Kit|
|RAP1A||RAP1A Antibody||RAP1A Protein||RAP1A cDNA||RAP1A ELISA Kit|
|RAP1B||RAP1B Antibody||RAP1B Protein||RAP1B cDNA||RAP1B ELISA Kit|
|RAP1GAP||RAP1GAP Antibody||RAP1GAP Protein||RAP1GAP cDNA||RAP1GAP ELISA Kit|
|RAPGEF1||RAPGEF1 Antibody||RAPGEF1 Protein||RAPGEF1 cDNA||RAPGEF1 ELISA Kit|
|RAPGEF2||RAPGEF2 Antibody||RAPGEF2 Protein||RAPGEF2 cDNA||RAPGEF2 ELISA Kit|
|RAPGEF3||RAPGEF3 Antibody||RAPGEF3 Protein||RAPGEF3 cDNA||RAPGEF3 ELISA Kit|
|RAPGEF4||RAPGEF4 Antibody||RAPGEF4 Protein||RAPGEF4 cDNA||RAPGEF4 ELISA Kit|
|RAPGEF5||RAPGEF5 Antibody||RAPGEF5 Protein||RAPGEF5 cDNA||RAPGEF5 ELISA Kit|
|RAPGEF6||RAPGEF6 Antibody||RAPGEF6 Protein||RAPGEF6 cDNA||RAPGEF6 ELISA Kit|