Rap1, referred to as Ras-associated protein 1, is a small G protein that belongs to the Ras superfamily. Rap1 has two isoforms: Rap1A and Rap1B. Like other G proteins, Rap1 is active when bound to GTP but inactive when bound to GDP.
In the Rap1 signaling pathway, the activation of Rap1 by some stimuli recruits many effectors, leading to its involvement in integrin signaling, ERK activation, and other important cellular processes.
The Rap1 signaling pathway exists in many important cellular processes such as the information and control of cell adhesion and cell junction, cell migration, polarization, and cell proliferation ＆ survival.
Rap1 usually binds to GDP and is under an inactive form of Rap1-GDP. Rap1 is activated when GTP replaces GDP in the complex Rap1-GDP through guanylate exchange factors (GEFs). While GAP (GTPase activating protein) deactivates active Rap1-GTP. By switching between the two conformations, Rap1 acts as a molecular switch that regulates the cell's response to external stimuli.
The second messenger cAMP stimulates Epac1, one of RapGEFs, which activates Epac1 to relocate to the plasma membrane, activating Epac-Rap1 signal and enhancing integrin-mediated cell adhesion. And Rap1 interacts with Tiam1 and Vav2 to activate Rac and CDC42, modulating cell polarization and movement. Furthermore, B-Raf, the Rap1 effector, can mediate ERK activation, which triggers the Rap1-MAPK signaling pathway, regulating cell proliferation and survival. In addition, the regulation of PI3K/Akt by Rap1 is also an important mechanism in the control of cell survival and proliferation.
When Rap1GAP and SIPA1, the inhibitors of Rap1, bind to Rap1, Rap1-GTP recovers to inactive Rap1-GDP, ending cellular responses to various stimuli.
As everyone knows, metastasis and invasion of tumor cells are the main causes of death of most cancers. Rap1 is a crucial player in the process of tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Rap1 plays an important role in tumor progression. And Rap1 is found to be over-activated in many kinds of tumors and is involved in the initiation, development, and metastasis of certain tumors such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma. But Rap1 has the opposite effect in the cancers of bladder, lung, and brain.
|RASGRP2||RASGRP2 Antibody||RASGRP2 Protein||RASGRP2 cDNA||RASGRP2 ELISA Kit|
|RASGRP3||RASGRP3 Antibody||RASGRP3 Protein||RASGRP3 cDNA||RASGRP3 ELISA Kit|
|RASSF5||RASSF5 Antibody||RASSF5 Protein||RASSF5 cDNA||RASSF5 ELISA Kit|
|RGS14||RGS14 Antibody||RGS14 Protein||RGS14 cDNA||RGS14 ELISA Kit|
|RHOA||RHOA Antibody||RHOA Protein||RHOA cDNA||RHOA ELISA Kit|
|RRAS||RRAS Antibody||RRAS Protein||RRAS cDNA||RRAS ELISA Kit|
|SIPA1||SIPA1 Antibody||SIPA1 Protein||SIPA1 cDNA||SIPA1 ELISA Kit|
|SIPA1L1||SIPA1L1 Antibody||SIPA1L1 Protein||SIPA1L1 cDNA||SIPA1L1 ELISA Kit|
|SIPA1L2||SIPA1L2 Antibody||SIPA1L2 Protein||SIPA1L2 cDNA||SIPA1L2 ELISA Kit|
|SIPA1L3||SIPA1L3 Antibody||SIPA1L3 Protein||SIPA1L3 cDNA||SIPA1L3 ELISA Kit|
|SKAP1||SKAP1 Antibody||SKAP1 Protein||SKAP1 cDNA||SKAP1 ELISA Kit|
|SRC||SRC Antibody||SRC Protein||SRC cDNA||SRC ELISA Kit|
|TEK||TEK Antibody||TEK Protein||TEK cDNA||TEK ELISA Kit|
|THBS1||THBS1 Antibody||THBS1 Protein||THBS1 cDNA||THBS1 ELISA Kit|
|TIAM1||TIAM1 Antibody||TIAM1 Protein||TIAM1 cDNA||TIAM1 ELISA Kit|
|TLN1||TLN1 Antibody||TLN1 Protein||TLN1 cDNA||TLN1 ELISA Kit|
|TLN2||TLN2 Antibody||TLN2 Protein||TLN2 cDNA||TLN2 ELISA Kit|
|VASP||VASP Antibody||VASP Protein||VASP cDNA||VASP ELISA Kit|
|VAV2||VAV2 Antibody||VAV2 Protein||VAV2 cDNA||VAV2 ELISA Kit|
|VEGFA||VEGFA Antibody||VEGFA Protein||VEGFA cDNA||VEGFA ELISA Kit|