Cardiac Stem Cell Markers
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) were first isolated in the rat heart by Beltrami et al. as cells positive for the surface receptor c-kit . Cardiac stem cells are not differentiated cells and have self-renewal capabilities in vitro. It can divide without limitation. During cellular division, these cells can divide through symmetrical division to increase their numbers. Alternatively, these stem cells can undergo asymmetrical cellular division to produce both a daughter stem cell and a progenitor cell, the latter of which can differentiates into three major cardiac cell types: cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Functional properties of cardiac stem cells
*This diagram is derived from the publication on Frontiers in Physiology 
Cardiac stem cells are characterized by specific protein cell markers. In addition to c-kit mentioned before, other specific phenotypic markers define other “types” of CSCs, although some of these markers may be co-expressed by some cells, including Sca-1+, Isl1+ and CSCs derived from cardiospheres . CUSABIO list most cardiac stem cells markers on the following table, and click to see all the related molecules/targets and research reagents of them.
ABCG2 (ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2) is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that protects many tissues against xenobiotic molecules. Its activity affects the pharmacokinetics of commonly used drugs and limits the delivery of therapeutics into tumor cells, thus contributing to multidrug resistance .
BMP4 (Bone morphogenetic protein 4), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family, plays an important role in mesenchyme formation, epidermal determination, suppression of neural induction, the development of multiple organs, and tissue repair .
CASP3 (Caspase 3) is a cysteine-aspartic acid protease that plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. This protein cleaves and inactivates poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase while it cleaves and activates sterol regulatory element binding proteins as well as caspases 6, 7, and 9.
NPPA (Natriuretic Peptide A) is a protein belonging to the natriuretic peptide family. This protein plays a key role in mediating cardio-renal homeostasis, and is involved in vascular remodeling and regulating energy metabolism  .
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