Endothelial Cells Markers
Endothelial cells (ECs) line the inside of very blood vessel and form the interior surface layer (also called the endothelium) of blood and lymph vessels throughout the circulatory system. Endothelial cells play a wide variety of critical roles in the control of vascular function . The commonly accepted roles of endothelial cells in homeostasis of body physiology are to safeguard transport logistics, control vascular permeability, and regulate vascular tone. Instead, they are active players in the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) both in health and (life-threatening) diseases . Additionally, endothelial cells also play an important role in coagulation and fibrinolysis. The Figure 1 shows representation of the role played by endothelial cells in coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways.
Figure 1. Schematic representation of the role played by endothelial cells in coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways
*This diagram is derived from the publication on JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY 
Endothelial cells are characterized by specific protein cell markers, which range from receptor tyrosine kinases, such as VEGFR, to cell adhesion proteins, such as ICAM1. The variety of proteins found on these cells provides specific mechanisms for targeting. CUSABIO list most endothelial markers on the following table, and click to see all the related molecules/targets and research reagents of them.
PECAM-1 (Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule), also known as CD31, is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. It is likely involved in leukocyte transmigration, angiogenesis, and integrin activation. CD31 on endothelial cells binds to the CD38 receptor on natural killer cells for those cells to attach to the endothelium  .
CD34, a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein protein, is a member of a family of single-pass transmembrane sialomucin proteins that show expression on early haematopoietic and vascular-associated tissue . It is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. CD34 is expressed on lymph node endothelia, whereas the L-selectin to which it binds is on the T cell  .
ICAM1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1), also known as CD54, is a cell surface glycoprotein and typically expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. ICAM-1 can be induced by IL-1 and TNF. ICAM-1 is a ligand for LFA-1, a receptor found on leukocytes . When activated, leukocytes bind to endothelial cells via ICAM-1/LFA-1 and then transmigrate into tissues .
PTPRC (Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C) (also known as CD45), a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, is a unique and ubiquitous membrane glycoprotein that is present in various isoforms on all differentiated hematopoietic cells (except erythrocytes and plasma cells) .
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