Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the ligand-inducible nuclear hormone receptor superfamily including three major members: PPARα (also called NR1C1), PPARβ/δ (also called NR1C2), and PPARγ (also called NR1C3). The three subtypes show different expression patterns in vertebrates.
Despite several similarities, each PPAR isoform shows specific functions likely due to different biochemical properties, variable tissue distribution, and differential responses to different ligands. Each of them is encoded in a separate gene and binds fatty acids and eicosanoids.
PPARα plays a role in the clearance of circulating or cellular lipids via the regulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. PPAR2α is highly expressed in liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart and vascular wall, and relatively low in fat and cartilage.
PPARβ/δ is involved in lipid oxidation and cell proliferation. PPARβ is highly expressed in the brain, stomach and colon.
PPARγ promotes adipocyte differentiation to enhance blood glucose uptake. PPAR gamma was expressed in mammalian adipose tissue, vascular smooth muscle tissue and myocardial tissue.
PPAR transcriptional activity can be modulated through a nongenomic cross talk with phosphatases and kinases, including ERK1/2, p38-MAPK, PKA, PKC, AMPK, and GSK3. PPARs can form heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR) modulating the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, maintenance of metabolic homeostasis, and inflammation and inducing also anticancer effects in a variety of human tumors.
PPARs is an important target of human metabolism-related diseases, and it is involved in regulating energy metabolism, cell differentiation and inflammatory response of peroxidase body proliferation. It is related to many pathophysiological processes such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, T2DM, ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and tumor.
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|ILK||ILK Antibody||ILK Protein||ILK cDNA||ILK ELISA Kit|
|LPL||LPL Antibody||LPL Protein||LPL cDNA||LPL ELISA Kit|
|ME1||ME1 Antibody||ME1 Protein||ME1 cDNA||ME1 ELISA Kit|
|MMP1||MMP1 Antibody||MMP1 Protein||MMP1 cDNA||MMP1 ELISA Kit|
|NR1H3||NR1H3 Antibody||NR1H3 Protein||NR1H3 cDNA||NR1H3 ELISA Kit|
|OLR1||OLR1 Antibody||OLR1 Protein||OLR1 cDNA||OLR1 ELISA Kit|
|PCK1||PCK1 Antibody||PCK1 Protein||PCK1 cDNA||PCK1 ELISA Kit|
|PCK2||PCK2 Antibody||PCK2 Protein||PCK2 cDNA||PCK2 ELISA Kit|
|PDPK1||PDPK1 Antibody||PDPK1 Protein||PDPK1 cDNA||PDPK1 ELISA Kit|
|PLIN1||PLIN1 Antibody||PLIN1 Protein||PLIN1 cDNA||PLIN1 ELISA Kit|
|PLIN2||PLIN2 Antibody||PLIN2 Protein||PLIN2 cDNA||PLIN2 ELISA Kit|
|PLIN4||PLIN4 Antibody||PLIN4 Protein||PLIN4 cDNA||PLIN4 ELISA Kit|
|PLIN5||PLIN5 Antibody||PLIN5 Protein||PLIN5 cDNA||PLIN5 ELISA Kit|
|PLTP||PLTP Antibody||PLTP Protein||PLTP cDNA||PLTP ELISA Kit|
|PPARA||PPARA Antibody||PPARA Protein||PPARA cDNA||PPARA ELISA Kit|
|PPARD||PPARD Antibody||PPARD Protein||PPARD cDNA||PPARD ELISA Kit|
|PPARG||PPARG Antibody||PPARG Protein||PPARG cDNA||PPARG ELISA Kit|
|RXRA||RXRA Antibody||RXRA Protein||RXRA cDNA||RXRA ELISA Kit|
|RXRB||RXRB Antibody||RXRB Protein||RXRB cDNA||RXRB ELISA Kit|