Recombinant Human Transforming growth factor beta-1(TGFB1),partial (Active)

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Code CSB-AP003861HU
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
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Product Details

Purity Greater than 95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity The ED50 as determined by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of TF-1 mouse T?cells is less than 0.2 ng/ml
Target Names TGFB1
Uniprot No. P01137
Research Area Cancer
Alternative Names Cartilage-inducing factor; CED; Differentiation inhibiting factor; DPD1; LAP; Latency-associated peptide; Prepro transforming growth factor beta 1; TGF beta 1; TGF beta; TGF beta 1 protein; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGF-beta-1; TGF-beta-5; TGF-beta1; TGFB; Tgfb-1; tgfb1; TGFB1_HUMAN; TGFbeta; TGFbeta1; Transforming Growth Factor b1; Transforming Growth Factor beta 1; Transforming growth factor beta 1a; transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1; Transforming Growth Factor-脽1
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source Mammalian cell
Expression Region 279-390aa
Mol. Weight 12.8 kDa
Protein Length Partial
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm Filtered 50 mM Glycine, 150 mM NaCl, pH 2.5
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.


miR‑877‑3p promotes TGF‑β1‑induced osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3‑E1 cells by targeting Smad7. Guisong He,Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine,2019

Applications: Stem/immune cell maintenance or differentiation
Species: Mouse
Review: TGF- β 1 promotes the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. (A) RT-qPCR analysis of the osteogenic-related genes RUNX2, OSX and COL1A1 in MC3T3-E1 cells after treatment with TGF- β 1 (4 ng/ml) for 0, 7 and 14 days. (B) Western blotting of RUNX2, COL1A1‑and OSX protein in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with TGF- β 1 (4 ng/ml) for 0, 7 and 14 days. (C) ALP activity in MC3T3‑E1 cells after treatment with TGF‑ β 1 (4 ng/ml) for 0, 7 and 14 days. NS, no significance change; * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 as indicated. TGF, transforming growth factor; RUNX2, runt-related transcription factor 2; OSX, osterix; COL1A1 collagen type I α 1 chain; ALP, alkaline phosphatase.

Target Data

Function Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts (By similarity). Stimulates sustained production of collagen through the activation of CREB3L1 by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP)
Gene References into Functions
  1. CTEN activated the expression of TGFB1, thereby prompting epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells. PMID: 29985912
  2. blocking TGF-b signaling with the TGF-b receptor inhibitor SB431542 counteracted the effect of platelets on KLF6 expression and proliferation of HCC cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that platelet releasates, especially TGF-b, promote the proliferation of SMMC.7721 and HepG2 cells by decreasing expression of KLF6 PMID: 28638139
  3. Stimulation of cancer cells with TGFbeta1 weakened the ability of glioblastoma cells to attract hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and exchange a fluorescent tag. This process stimulated cancer cell proliferation, which is an indication of the ability of HSCs to 'switch' the proliferation and invasion processes in glioblastoma cells. PMID: 30226551
  4. Long non-coding RNA 886 is induced by TGF-beta and suppresses the microRNA pathway in ovarian cancer. PMID: 29563500
  5. these findings demonstrate that JunB and CBP-mediated histone hyperacetylation are responsible for TGF-beta1 induced ITGB6 transcription in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for the active transcription expression of ITGB6 induced by TGF-beta1 in OSCC cells. PMID: 29274289
  6. TGF-beta induces MIR100HG lncRNA, encoding miR-100, let-7a and miR-125b that control pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumorigenesis. Pro-tumorigenic miR-100 and miR-125b increase and anti-tumorigenic let-7a is unchanged, as TGF-beta also induces LIN28B. The induction of LIN28B results in the up-regulation of miR-100 and miR-125b, with let-7a unchanged despite being part of the same MIR100HG primary transcript. PMID: 29748571
  7. expression increased in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I and CIN II and decreased in CIN III and cancer PMID: 30059872
  8. Studies indicate that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has an important role in tissue fibrosis by up-regulating matrix protein synthesis, inhibiting matrix degradation, and altering cell-cell interaction [Review]. PMID: 30150520
  9. A possible mechanism has been proposed of the TGF-beta-VEGF-C pathway in which TGF-beta promotes VEGF-C production in tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, and mesothelial cells, leading to lymphangiogenesis in renal and peritoneal fibrosis. (Review) PMID: 30142879
  10. we observed that human TGF-beta1 could up-regulate the expression of CD147 in response to arecoline and that inhibition of TGF-beta1 could down-regulate this expression. The data presented here suggest that TGF-beta1 may promote OSF progression via CD147. PMID: 29457855
  11. TGF-beta activity is elevated in human heterotopic ossification patients. PMID: 29416028
  12. FZD8 silencing reduces prostate cancer cell migration, invasion, three-dimensional (3D) organotypic cell growth, expression of EMT-related genes, and TGF-beta/Smad-dependent signaling PMID: 29717114
  13. Data suggest that resolvin D1/RVDR1 signaling (1) promotes epithelial wound repair, (2) inhibits TGFB-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in type II alveolar cells, (3) inhibits fibroproliferation and apoptosis, (4) reduces effects of TGFB on primary lung fibroblast collagen production, and (5) inhibits myofibroblast differentiation. (RVDR1 = resolvin D1 receptor) PMID: 29083412
  14. this paper shows that TGF-beta1 alters esophageal epithelial barrier function by attenuation of claudin-7 in eosinophilic esophagitis PMID: 28832026
  15. on the basis of present results, TGFB1 (-509C/T) can be considered as a predisposing factor of idiopathic scoliosis (IS)with a moderate individual effect on deformity development in Bulgarian patients; results may suggest that there is an association of the TGFB1 (-509C/T) polymorphism with susceptibility to IS in the female population with sporadic or familial IS and early or late onset IS PMID: 30079294
  16. Treatment of GLS1-deficient myofibroblasts with exogenous glutamate or alpha-KG restored TGF-beta1-induced expression of profibrotic markers in GLS1-deficient myofibroblasts. Together, these data demonstrate that glutaminolysis is a critical component of myofibroblast metabolic reprogramming that regulates myofibroblast differentiation. PMID: 29222329
  17. High TGFB1 expression is associated with cardiac fibrosis. PMID: 30340644
  18. Our findings provide a novel insight of endometriosis that the hypoxic microenvironment stimulates endometrial stromal cells to produce excessive TGF-beta1 and activates the TGF-beta1/Smad signaling pathway, thus enhancing integrin expression and the adhesion ability of endometrial stromal cells. PMID: 29438550
  19. Prodomain-growth factor swapping in the structure of pro-TGF-beta1. PMID: 29109152
  20. Inductive effect of TGF-beta on podoplanin seems to be limited. PMID: 29577431
  21. RHCG was down-regulated in cervical cancers compared to that in normal cervical tissues, and further decreased in cervical cancer cell lines. Functionally, RHCG overexpression reduced cervical cancer cell proliferation and migration, as evidenced by the decreased transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expressions in cancer cells. PMID: 29852177
  22. Following Schistosoma exposure, TSP-1 levels in the lung increase, via recruitment of circulating monocytes, while TSP-1 inhibition or knockout bone marrow prevents TGF-beta activation and protects against pulmonary hypertension development. PMID: 28555642
  23. TGFbeta1 reduced complex IV protein MTCO1 abundance in both myoblasts and myotubes. PMID: 29335583
  24. TGF-beta1 expression is regulated by PlncRNA-1 in breast cancer. PMID: 29626321
  25. Elevated AhR expression may be involved in the progression of tissue remodeling in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyp without allergic rhinitis similar to TGF-beta1 expression PMID: 29183012
  26. Overall, these findings suggest a more dominant role for SMAD3 and SMAD4 than SMAD2 in TGFbeta-induced chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. PMID: 28240243
  27. High TGF beta expression is associated with Chronic Periodontitis. PMID: 30051674
  28. Fewer TIMP-2, Hsp70 and TGF-beta1 immunoreactive cells in younger individuals and increased expression of Hsp70 in elderly individuals demonstrated the influence of aging in lung remodeling PMID: 29325453
  29. Data show that TGFbeta1-mediated EMT involves CD44 splice isoform switching in ovarian cancer cells. PMID: 29130517
  30. Gene silencing experiments of MLL4 and the subunits PA1 and PTIP confirm TGF-beta-specific genes to be regulated by the MLL4 complex, which links TGF-beta signaling to transcription regulation by the MLL4 methyltransferase complex. PMID: 28976802
  31. TGF-beta1 is significantly overexpressed in tumor tissue samples of clear cell Renal cell carcinoma patients. TGF-beta1 up-regulation could be responsible for the high levels of NNMT observed in clear cell Renal cell carcinoma tissues. PMID: 29974846
  32. TGF-beta role in the promotion of DNA damage and genomic instability in cancer cells. PMID: 29074538
  33. TGFbeta1 induced the expression alphaSMA, Col1 and fibronectin, and stimulated fibroblastmediated contraction of collagen gel. PMID: 30015862
  34. miR-203 expression also inhibited primary tumor growth in ovaries and metastatic tumors in multiple peritoneal organs including liver and spleen. miR-203 inhibits ovarian tumor metastasis by targeting BIRC5/survivin and attenuating the TGFbeta pathway. PMID: 30241553
  35. NK cells from liver cirrhosis (LC) patients could enter hepatic stellate to form emperipolesis (a cell-in-cell structure) and become apoptotic; anti-TGF-b treatment ameliorated this emperipolesis. PMID: 28291251
  36. therapeutic activation of ERbeta elicits potent anticancer effects in Triple-negative breast cancer through the induction of a family of secreted proteins known as the cystatins, which function to inhibit canonical TGFbeta signaling and suppress metastatic phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. PMID: 30257941
  37. These findings suggest that TGFbeta plays a vital role in triple-negative breast cancer epirubicin-resistance through regulating stemness, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and apoptosis. PMID: 29792857
  38. TGF-beta release from platelets is necessary for podoplanin-mediated tumor invasion and metastasis in lung cancer. PMID: 28176852
  39. Treating HepG2 cells with hepatotoxicants resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). PMID: 29558627
  40. In contrast with some reports involving the correlation between polymorphisms of the TGF-beta1 and IL-2 genes and inhibitor development in the world, no statistically significant differences in analysis of the alleles and genotypes for TGF-beta and IL-2 genes were found between the inhibitor and non-inhibitor Iranian patients PMID: 29993342
  41. The findings of the present study indicated that miR326 inhibited endometrial fibrosis by suppressing the TGFbeta1/Smad3 signaling pathway, suggesting that miR326 may be a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for Intrauterine adhesion (IUA). PMID: 29956752
  42. Characterization of gene expression profiles in hepatitis B-related liver fibrosis patients identified ITGBL1 and its interactions with TGFB1 as key regulators of fibrogenesis. PMID: 28262670
  43. TGF-beta1 and arginase-1 may play important roles in determining long-term graft survival. PMID: 30074212
  44. Two polymorphic sites of TGF-beta1 gene were identified: -509C/T and +869T/C. We found that the -509C/T polymorphism was associated with increased asthma risk under the heterozygous mode land the dominant model. Subgroup analyses by age suggested that -509C/T variant was associated with childhood asthma. PMID: 29958018
  45. proinflammatory cytokines suppressed the TGFbetamediated expression of NGF in PDLderived fibroblasts through the inactivation of TGFbetainduced Smad2/3 and p38 MAPK signaling. PMID: 29901090
  46. FXR agonist treatment enhanced TGF-beta-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT) morphologic changes and FXR antagonist inhibited the effect of TGF-beta;. Thus, FXR activation enhances EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and FXR antagonists may be EMT-suppressing drug candidates. PMID: 29958417
  47. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease patients with moderately preserved renal function have higher levels of FasL, myostatin and urine TGF-beta1 than controls PMID: 29794429
  48. No increased risk for developing immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was associated with any allele/genotype of tumor necrosis factor beta (TNFB) + 252G/A gene polymorphism. PMID: 29020887
  49. Suppression of TGF-beta1 enhances chemosensitivity of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells through the inhibition of drug-resistant proteins PMID: 28918673
  50. The results of the present study indicated that CD8+ T cells with high TGFbeta1 expression served an important role in LN fibrosis following HIV infection. PMID: 29749506
  51. In subgroup analyses by ethnicity or original disease, no statistically significant association between TGF-beta1 rs1800470 polymorphisms and pulmonary fibrosis (PF) was demonstrated; this meta-analysis revealed that TGF-beta1 rs1800470 polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to PF development PMID: 30212926
  52. Taken these together, it was indicated that XIST/miR-185/TGF-beta1 axis participated in the development of gastric cancer (GC). XIST could act as a potential prognostic biomarker in GC development. PMID: 29053187
  53. Following adjustment for sex, logistic regression analysis showed that BRAFV600E mutation, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) expression, age, and tumor size are risk factors that can affect tumor clinical stage (p < 0.05). Based on the results of this analysis, we generated a matrix that incorporated 4 variables: patient age, tumor size, BRAFV600E mutation, and TGF-beta expression. PMID: 28892804
  54. identified a branch of the XIST/miR-137/Notch-1 pathway that regulates proliferation and TGF-beta1-induced EMT in NSCLC, which could be involved in NSCLC progression PMID: 29812958
  55. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-beta1, are not upregulated in the serum of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID: 29494710
  56. relevance of the discovered Sirt1-Smad2 interaction for the regulation of TGFbeta-dependent gene transcription PMID: 29187201
  57. This study observed a hierarchical correlation between the subtypes of Plasma Cell Dyscrasias categories and the recruitment of two subpopulations of monocytes, monocytic monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and monocytes expressing latency-associated propeptide, TGF-beta, with immunosuppressive activity. PMID: 29589834
  58. NLRC5 may act as a key mediator in renal fibroblast activation and fibrogenesis PMID: 29608899
  59. DCF1 could prevent alpha-syn-induced dopaminergic neuron loss by degradation of alpha-syn in dorsomedial region. PMID: 29649746
  60. Our present study indicated that S100A11 promotes EMT through accumulation of TGF-beta1 expression, and TGF-beta1-induced upregulation of p-SMAD2 and 3. PMID: 29569474
  61. NOTCH1 is a central mediator of TGFbetamediated FOXP3 expression and NOTCH1 inhibition produces a significant reduction of melanoma cell proliferation and viability. PMID: 29620159
  62. TET2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy by activating TGFbeta1 expression through demethylation of CpG islands in the TGFbeta1 regulatory region PMID: 29705354
  63. Autocrine transforming growth factor-beta/activin A-Smad signaling induces hepatic progenitor cells undergoing partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition states PMID: 29544731
  64. epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin are potent in preventing Epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-beta1 in ARPE-19 cells and therefore, proposed as potential molecules for further pre-clinical evaluation in Proliferative vitreoretinopathy management PMID: 29578200
  65. Transforming growth factor beta1 levels increased significantly within 3 months after fetal pancreatic stem cell transplant in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID: 29528020
  66. TGFB1-mediated PI3K/Akt and p38 MAP kinase dependent alternative splicing of fibronectin extra domain A in human podocyte culture has been reported. PMID: 29729706
  67. TGFB1 polymorphisms -509 C>T and +10 T>C are associated with Chagas disease susceptibility in a Brazilian population. PMID: 29670670
  68. S100A4 expression is induced by the TGF-beta pathway. PMID: 29141874
  69. the results of the present study indicated that miR2145p may promote the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs through regulation of the TGFbeta/Smad2/COL4A1 signaling pathway, and potentially may be used to develop a novel drug for postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID: 29532880
  70. these results indicate that miR124 transection inhibits the growth and aggressive of osteosarcoma, potentially via suppression of TGFbetamediated AKT/GSK3beta/snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAIL1) signaling, suggesting miR124 may be a potential anticancer agent/target for osteosarcoma therapy. PMID: 29488603
  71. Mechanistic studies reveal that TGFbeta activates the expression of microRNA-182 (miR-182), which suppresses SMAD7 protein. miR-182 silencing leads to SMAD7 upregulation on TGFbeta treatment and prevents TGFbeta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion of cancer cells. PMID: 27996004
  72. Adherence to the traditional dietary pattern in individuals with the C allele carrier TGF-beta1 T869C polymorphism, was associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Iranian women PMID: 28918533
  73. TGF-beta1 is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed glioblastoma rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-beta2. PMID: 29642484
  74. High TGFB1 expression is associated with fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID: 29328490
  75. This is the first evidence of downregulation of TGFbeta1-mediated activation of a Smad1/5/8 signalling pathway by CCN3 in human podocytes and in any cell type. PMID: 29506624
  76. TGFbeta1 2.5ng/ml induced the alternative splicing of extra domain A fibronectin shown by conventional RT-PCR. PMID: 29506626
  77. effects of both oxidative stress and LTBP2 knockdown on the extracellular matrix and apoptosis may be mediated by TGFbeta and BMP signaling pathway activation PMID: 29908281
  78. The results of this in vitro study of HOBS and MG-63 cell lines indicate that low BP doses can significantly affect the expression of genes essential for osteoblast growth and differentiation and of genes involved in regulating osteoblast-osteoclast interaction, possibly by increasing TGF-b1 production PMID: 29511371
  79. We found that ITZ treatment was efficient in suppressing EMT and that the effect of ITZ was partially mediated by impaired TGF-b/SMAD2/3 signaling. The role of TGF-b/SMAD2/3 signaling in mediating the effect of ITZ was confirmed based on the results that recombinant TGF-b induced, but the TGF-b neutralizing antibody inhibited EMT as well as the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells PMID: 29484419
  80. our findings demonstrated that tumor cells may promote AEC II transdifferentiation. Furthermore, the transdifferentiation of AEC IIs may, in turn, induce the reactivation of 3D-established DTCs by promoting TGF-beta1/SNAI2 signaling PMID: 29436661
  81. T869C polymorphism of the TGF-beta1 gene has an impact on bone mineral density and enhancement of the susceptibility to osteopenia/osteoporosis in Egyptian women. PMID: 29208173
  82. GRP78 binds to and acts in concert with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, CD109, in blocking TGF-beta signaling by promoting the routing of the TGF-beta receptor to the caveolae, thereby disrupting its binding to and activation of Smad2. PMID: 29654145
  83. Studies suggest that the regulation of transforming growth factor [TGF-beta] signaling in cancer metastasis which may contribute to the development of novel cancer-targeting therapies [Review]. PMID: 29190313
  84. studies indicate the association between transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)/BMP signaling pathways and neuronal tissue homeostasis and development and facilitate the research with a potential to develop new therapies for neurological ailments by modulating the pathways [Review]. PMID: 29190314
  85. The crosstalk between transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling and the epigenome could serve as a versatile fine-tuning mechanism for transcriptional regulation during embryonic development and progression of diseases, particularly cancer [Review]. PMID: 29190318
  86. Apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are subtly regulated and can be potently stimulated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which profoundly contribute to the biological roles of TGF-beta [Review]. PMID: 29069287
  87. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling is finely controlled by distinct modes of feedback mechanisms [Review]. PMID: 29228156
  88. We suggest that TGFBR3 protein expression is involved in up-regulated TGF-beta signaling in Marfan syndrome patients with a dominant negative FBN1 gene mutation. PMID: 29198452
  89. Studies indicate the dual roles of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway and related mechanisms in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), suggesting the potential benefits and challenges of TGF-beta/Smad-targeted therapies [Review]. PMID: 29206939
  90. this study shows a strong association between the polymorphisms of the TGF-beta1 gene at codon 10 and codon 25 positions and atopic dermatitis in Iranian children PMID: 29310944
  91. Knockdown of elF3a inhibits TGFB1-induced extracellular matrix protein expression in keloid fibroblasts. PMID: 29286129
  92. Disturbed expression of genes involved in adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling develops early during renal cell carcinoma carcinogenesis and correlates with poor survival. TGF-beta1 contributes to changed expression of extracellular matrix and adhesion related genes. PMID: 26631499
  93. SMAD2/3 interactome reveals that TGFbeta controls m(6)A mRNA methylation in pluripotency PMID: 29489750
  94. High levels of fetuin-A and TGFbeta1 reported in patients with axial spondyloarthropathies. PMID: 26799059
  95. Results suggest that HTRA1 is involved in the pathogenesis of scars through regulating activation of latent TGF-beta1 in keloid fibroblasts. PMID: 29412803
  96. The present study demonstrated that in human osteoarthritis fibroblastlike synoviocytes, TGF-beta signals via p-Smad2 and p-Smad1/5/8. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that LTBP-1 may modulate the activity of TGF-beta in human osteoarthritis fibroblastlike synoviocytes. PMID: 29257223
  97. These data indicate that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) endow potential anticancer properties on epithelial ovarian cancer in vivo and in vitro which is partially mediated by hAECsecreted TGFbeta1-induced cell cycle arrest. This study suggests a potential application of hAECbased therapy against epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID: 29048644
  98. Results demonstrated that TGF-beta1 regulated FUT1 and Lewis y expression by activating the MAPK/c-Fos pathway. PMID: 29130097
  99. analysis of how the molecular mechanisms involved in the dual response to TGF-beta in cancer, and how tumor cells evolve to evade the tumor-suppressive responses of this signaling pathway and then hijack the signal, converting it into an oncogenic factor [review] PMID: 28246180
  100. The present study demonstrated that the expression of LKB1 and SIK1 was downregulated, while TGF-beta and epithelialmesenchymal transition protein expression levels were upregulated in clinical ovarian tumor tissues and cells. PMID: 29257268

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Involvement in disease Camurati-Engelmann disease (CAEND)
Subcellular Location Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix
Protein Families TGF-beta family
Tissue Specificity Highly expressed in bone. Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA). Colocalizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage.
Database Links

HGNC: 11766

OMIM: 131300

KEGG: hsa:7040

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000221930

UniGene: Hs.645227

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