CAR-T is named after a mythical creature called the chimera and refers to Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell, which is characterized by genetic modification to obtain a personalized therapeutic method for carrying T cells that recognize tumor antigen-specific receptors. CAR-T is able to sense cells with specific proteins on its surface through its own receptors, lock infected cells and cancer cells in this way, and then kill them.
CAR-T cell therapy is as a type of immunotherapy that teaches T cells to recognize and destroy cancer. CAR-T cell therapy has been validated in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and personalized treatment produces significant results.
The process for CAR T cell therapy can take a few weeks. As the figure 1 shows:
First, doctors collect immune T cells from an individual's peripheral blood using a procedure called leukapheresis.
Second, after the T-cells (a type of white cells) are collected from the patient, they are sent to the lab, and genetically engineered those cells to express cancer-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on their surface. The receptor functions as a type of "heat-seeking missile", enabling the modified cells to produce chemicals that kill cancer.
Third, a large number of CAR-T cells are cultured in vitro (called "ex vivo expansion"), and generally one patient needs several billions or even ten billion CAR-T cells.
Finally, once there are enough CAR-T cells, they will be re-infused into the patient in order to launch a precise attack against the cancer cells.
A typical CAR on the cell’s surface is composed of an extracellular antigen binding region, a transmembrane region, and an intracellular signal transduction region. The domains that are used can affect how well the receptor recognizes or binds to the antigen on the tumor cell.
You can click the article named CAR-T Cell Therapy- An Useful Treatment To Cancer to read the full text about CAR-T cell therapy, including its structure, history of development and targets.
As you know, CAR T-cell therapy has advanced the furthest in clinical development as a star treatment to cancer. It is necessary to do a large amount of basic research. CUSABIO provides a series products of its targets and related cytokines involved in the processes of T cell differentiation.