Recombinant Human Programmed cell death protein 1(PDCD1),partial

Code CSB-EP619964HU
Size US$1726
  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.

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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names PDCD1
Uniprot No. Q15116
Research Area Cell Biology
Alternative Names CD279; CD279 antigen; hPD 1; hPD l; hPD-1; hSLE1; PD 1; PD-1; PD1; PDCD 1; PDCD1; PDCD1_HUMAN; Programmed cell death 1 ; Programmed cell death 1 protein; Programmed cell death protein 1; Protein PD 1; Protein PD-1; SLEB2 ; Systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility 2
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 21-170aa
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 32.8kDa
Protein Length Extracellular Domain
Tag Info N-terminal 6xHis-SUMO-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Inhibitory cell surface receptor involved in the regulation of T-cell function during immunity and tolerance. Upon ligand binding, inhibits T-cell effector functions in an antigen-specific manner. Possible cell death inducer, in association with other factors.
Gene References into Functions
  1. HLA-G, NRP1, and PD-1, may be involved in the immune response in psoriatic patients PMID: 29790686
  2. Proportions of naive CD4+ T cells were lower in young patients than in age-matched controls, and actually comparable to those in old patients and controls. This was accompanied with increased percentages of memory CD4+ T cells expressing HLA-DR, Ki-67, and PD-1 in young melanoma patients in comparison to the age-matched controls, but not in old patients. PMID: 29546435
  3. This meta-analysis demonstrates the PD-1 rs36084323 A > G polymorphism is associated with decreased cancer risk in Asian PMID: 30249505
  4. there is no significant association between PD1.3G/A - rs11568821 polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in Southern Brazilian population. PMID: 27914594
  5. SLC18A1 might complement other biomarkers currently under study in relation to programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death protein ligand 1 inhibition PMID: 30194079
  6. Structural and functional analyses unexpectedly reveal an N-terminal loop outside the IgV domain of PD-1. This loop is not involved in recognition of PD-L1 but dominates binding to nivolumab, whereas N-glycosylation is not involved in binding at all. PMID: 28165004
  7. This finding suggested the potential application of PD-1 blockade in AML. The present work demonstrated an excellent synergistic tumour therapeutic effect of PD-1 blockade and CTL therapy compared with either treatment alone. PMID: 29962321
  8. High PD-1 expression is associated with Mycobacterium avium complex-induced lung disease. PMID: 28169347
  9. PD-1/PD-L1 expression is a frequent occurrence in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system. PMID: 29037958
  10. Results indicated that high-level PD1 expression may be an important factor associated with the immune checkpoint pathway in liver cancer. PMID: 29620156
  11. These results suggest that the PD-1 genotype of the donor plays an important role for the development of acute GvHD after alloHSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors. PMID: 30019128
  12. We conclude that a subgroup of advanced disease ovarian cancer patients with high grade tumors, expressing PD-L1, may be prime candidates for immunotherapy targeting PD-1 signaling PMID: 29843813
  13. Both rs2227982 and rs2227981 polymorphisms were associated with T1 Diabetes (T1D) risk in East Asians, and rs2227982 also had a significant association with glycemic traits, which suggested PDCD1 gene polymorphisms might participate in facilitating T1D risk. [meta-analysis] PMID: 29774466
  14. PD.1 (-538G/A) gene polymorphism is associated with Colon Cancer Risk. PMID: 29580042
  15. The high-affinity PD-1 mutant could compete with the binding of antibodies specific to PD-L1 or PD-L2 on cancer cells. PMID: 29890018
  16. The G allele of rs36084323 of PDCD1 is associated with increased risk of advanced TNM staging of colorectal cancer. PMID: 29652996
  17. promoter methylation of CTLA4, PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 in diffuse lower-grade gliomas (LGG) harboring isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, is reported. PMID: 29396294
  18. Unlike other multiple autoimmune disease associated genetic variants, there was no association between PDCD1 variants and Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis PMID: 28056736
  19. Alteration of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway can modulate Treg/Th17 balance in asthmatic children. PMID: 29874664
  20. The expression of PD1 on T cells was elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and was correlated with the disease activity. PMID: 29257239
  21. High expression of programmed death-1 in sentinel lymph nodes is associated with breast cancer. PMID: 29193094
  22. We describe three cases of patients with mRCC treated with anti-PD-1 antibody therapy in combination with targeted therapy (bevacizumab), anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 therapy (ipilimumab), or radiotherapy. PMID: 29146617
  23. anti-CTLA4/anti-PD-1/PD-L1 combinations versus anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy was selected as a factor independent of TMB for predicting better RR (77% vs. 21%; P = 0.004) and PFS (P = 0.024). Higher TMB predicts favorable outcome to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade across diverse tumors. PMID: 28835386
  24. The altered soluble (s)PD1 and sICOS serum levels in the different Hepatitis b (HBV) groups may reflect the dysregulation of T cell activation, and may be associated with the HBV pathological process. PMID: 28983583
  25. We found that PD-L1 expression was upregulated following TGF-beta induction; in contrast, it was downregulated by TGF-beta receptor-kinase inhibitors and the MET process. Furthermore, chemo-treatment increased TGF-beta expression and enhances PD-L1 expression via autocrine TGF-beta induced EMT. Analysis of clinical samples revealed a significant relationship between PD-L1 expression and EMT status PMID: 28849209
  26. this study demonstrated that PD-1 may involve in lymph nodes metastasis and promote the understanding of the mechanism of immunotherapies in the non-small cell lung cancer PMID: 28799818
  27. PD-L1 expression in melanoma tumor cells is lower than NSCLC or renal cell carcinoma cells. The higher response rate in melanoma patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors is likely related to PD-L1 in tumor-associated inflammatory cells. Further studies are warranted to validate the predictive role of inflammatory cell PD-L1 expression in melanoma and determine its biological significance PMID: 28223273
  28. Higher PRE PD-1(+) T cells in responders suggest active suppression of an engaged immune system that is disinhibited by anti-PD-1 therapies. Furthermore, immunoprofiling of EDT biopsies for increased PD-L1 expression and immune cell infiltration showed greater predictive utility than PRE biopsies and may allow better selection of patients most likely to benefit from anti-PD-1 therapies and warrants further evaluation PMID: 28512174
  29. PD-1 was overexpressed on CD8+ T-cells from patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in a severity-dependent manner. PMID: 29051270
  30. The results show that the distinctive pathological features of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), background chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT), female gender, psammoma bodies, and stromal calcification, are useful parameters for predicting PD-L1 or PD-1 expression. PMID: 28974264
  31. Our results did not show any association between PDCD1 SNPs and the development of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in an Iranian population PMID: 29307156
  32. High expressions of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) were associated with poor prognosis after surgery. PMID: 29848685
  33. Programmed death-1 polymorphism is associated with risk of esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma. PMID: 28487496
  34. PD-1 was expressed in 26% of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumor cells and may have prognostic and therapeutic implications PMID: 29445891
  35. We now show that patients with low PD-L1 expression on myeloid cells have improved survival when treated with an antitumor vaccine, suggesting that PD-L1 expression on myeloid cells may be an important predictive biomarker in future clinical trials. Additionally, the combination of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition and vaccination may increase the efficacy of this immunotherapeutic approach. PMID: 28193626
  36. Lower expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was associated with better survival in patients who underwent surgery for the primary tumor and had multiple brain metastases PMID: 28201746
  37. PD-1/PD-L pathway inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) T-cell functions and phagocytosis of macrophages in active tuberculosis. PMID: 27924827
  38. This study builds optimism that harmonization between assays may be possible, and that the three assays studied could potentially be used interchangeably to identify patients most likely to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapies, provided the appropriate clinically defined algorithm and agent are always linked. PMID: 28073845
  39. Results identified an overall low expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in high-risk prostate cancer tissue. PMID: 28461179
  40. The biopsy tumor key protein measurements demonstrate substantial between-tumor variation in expression ratios of these proteins and suggest that programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 PD-L2 is present in some tumors at levels sufficient to contribute to programmed cell death-1 PD-1-dependent T-cell regulation and possibly to affect responses to PD-1- and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 PD-L1-blocking drugs. PMID: 28546465
  41. Early phase clinical trials using PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors alone or in combination have shown objective tumor responses and durable long-term disease control, in heavily pre-treated patients, notably in the TN subtype. Blockade of PD-1 or PD-L1 shows impressive antitumor activity in some subsets of breast cancer patients PMID: 28799073
  42. Differential expression of immunological markers relating to the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in blood can be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in ovarian cancers. These data have implications for the development and trial of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in ovarian cancer. PMID: 27986748
  43. LAG-3+ iTILs are enriched in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers and represent an independent favorable prognostic factor. In addition, a high proportion of PD-1/PD-L1+ tumors are co-infiltrated with LAG-3+ TILs. PMID: 29045526
  44. An IDO1 inhibitor, epacadostat also demonstrated promising activity in combination with the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors in other solid tumors, including melanoma, urothelial carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer PMID: 28760910
  45. PD-L1 was positive in tumor cells in 2/13 cases, weak positive in 7/13, and negative in 4/13 cases, respectively PMID: 28807336
  46. we report the first case of immune microenvironment profiling and response to anti-PD-1 in a patient with Renal medullary carcinoma to our knowledge. This case suggests that anti-PD-1 based therapies may have clinical activity in Renal medullary carcinoma PMID: 28105368
  47. We present two cases of metastatic melanoma treated with nivolumab and pembrolizumab (anti PD-1). Both patients developed acute interstitial nephritis during immune checkpoint therapy PMID: 28105370
  48. the positive rate of PD-L2 did not show any differences between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes. In multivariate analysis, PD-L1 expression, PD-L2 expression, a low density of CD8(+) T cells in primary tumors, and PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells in primary tumors were associated with poor prognosis. PMID: 28754154
  49. Relative to controls, the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on peripheral blood and tumor infiltrating T cells increased with disease progression. Upregulation of expression promotes t-cells apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID: 29599324
  50. These data support the combinatorial approach of in situ suppression of the PD-L inhibitory checkpoints with DC-mediated IL15 transpresentation to promote antigen-specific T-cell responses and, ultimately, contribute to graft-versus-tumor immunity PMID: 28637876
  51. In this report, we use two murine models to investigate whether the dose, MHC affinity, or TCR affinity of an epitope affected the antitumor response via the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. These findings have implications for the use of agents targeting PD-1 expression or function whenever high-affinity CD8 T cells are elicited or supplied by means of vaccination or adoptive transfer PMID: 28634215
  52. Because PD-Ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in other tumor types has been associated with response to anti-PD-1, we investigated the expression of PD-L1 and its association with PD-1 expression in the basal cell carcinoma tumor microenvironment PMID: 28344809
  53. the inhibitory PD-1 receptor is a potent haploinsufficient tumour suppressor in T cell lymphomas that is frequently altered in human disease; findings extend the known physiological functions of PD-1 beyond the prevention of immunopathology after antigen-induced T cell activation, and have implications for T cell lymphoma therapies and for current strategies that target PD-1 in the broader context of immuno-oncology PMID: 29143824
  54. This study suggests that AFAP1-AS1 and PD-1 may be potential therapeutic targets in nasopharyngeal carcinoma PMID: 28380458
  55. These results demonstrate the involvement of sPD-1 in the disease course of chronic HBV infection and indicate the potential to apply sPD-1 as a biomarker for differentiating IT from other phases and HCC from other disease conditions in chronic HBV infection. PMID: 28545019
  56. summarizes the latest research on PD-1 in infectious diseases and discusses its role in acute and chronic viral infection[review] PMID: 29335088
  57. Our study demonstrates a cross-talk between PARPi and tumor-associated immunosuppression and provides evidence to support the combination of PARPi and PD-L1 or PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade as a potential therapeutic approach to treat breast cancer PMID: 28167507
  58. Results show that high programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, PD-1)methylation (mPDCD1) was associated with a significantly shorter overall survival after surgical resection. PMID: 28487502
  59. Suggest that genetic polymorphisms of PD-1 function as sex-dependent risk factors for development of acute rejection in an Iranian kidney transplant population. PMID: 28031007
  60. downregulation in PD-1 inhibitory signaling in RA could be attributed to increased serum sPD-1 and decreased synovial tissue PD-L1 levels PMID: 29489833
  61. PD1 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B infection in the Chinese population. PMID: 28667037
  62. PD-1 seems to correlate with disease progression in epitheliotropic T cell dyscrasias ranging from minimal staining in prelymphomatous dyscrasias to significant staining in mycosis fungoides PMID: 28648940
  63. in some tumor types, PD-L2 expression is more closely linked to Th1/IFNG expression and PD-1 and CD8 signaling than PD-L1 PMID: 27837027
  64. Our meta-analysis revealed that PD1.3 polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to SLE, particularly in Caucasians, while PD1.6 may be a protective factor to SLE. PMID: 28415570
  65. PD-1.5 C/T polymorphism, but not PD-1.3 G/A, is associated with brain tumors in Iranian patients. PMID: 28535114
  66. Although mutational and immunologic differences have been proposed as the primary determinants of heterogeneous response/resistance to targeted therapies and immunotherapies, respectively, differential lesional gene expression profiles may also dictate anti-PD-1 outcomes PMID: 28193624
  67. PD-1 and/or PD-L1 are expressed in up to 82% of thymic epithelial neoplasms, but do not appear to be associated with patient outcome. PMID: 28281549
  68. High PD-1 expression is associated with glioblastoma. PMID: 28115578
  69. This work provides evidence that TP53 and KRAS mutation in lung adenocarcinoma may be served as a pair of potential predictive factors in guiding anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy PMID: 28039262
  70. Data show that tumor-derived IL-18 induced PD-1 expression on NK cells and is associated with poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer. PMID: 28415798
  71. Decreased PD-1 and B7-H1 expression which might impair functional regulation of negative costimulation on immune response in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy. PMID: 28026044
  72. Clinical response to pembrolizumab in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)may be related partly to blockade of PD-1/PD-L2 interactions. Therapy targeting both PD-1 ligands may provide clinical benefit in these patients. PMID: 28619999
  73. The data we presented here showed that CTLA-4 was highly expressed in regulatory T cells and PD-1 decreased in CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of SCLC patients, suggesting their unique mechanisms involved in immune regulation. PMID: 29167005
  74. Significant differences in the CpG-methylation patterns between tumor tissues and matched controls were observed for PDCD1 showing a decreased methylation of this gene in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Expression studies confirmed that hypomethylation also resulted in increased expression of PDCD1. PMID: 28503213
  75. Higher PD-1 expression was found in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps than in nasal tissue from controls. This was associated with disease severity and tissue IL-5 expression but unrelated to the patients' atopy status PMID: 28122135
  76. we find PD-1+ lymphocytes in prostate cancer tumors to be an independent negative prognostic marker in post-prostatectomy hormone naive patients. PMID: 28460462
  77. PD-1 appears to plays a critical role in mediating NK cell exhaustion. The existence of this negative checkpoint fine-tuning NK activation highlights the possibility that manipulation of the PD-1 pathway may be a strategy for circumventing tumor escape not only from the T cell-, but also the NK-cell mediated immune surveillance. PMID: 27662664
  78. Higher PD-1 positivity is associated with small-cell-predominant cutaneous ENKTL. However, PD-1 expression has no prognostic value in cutaneous ENKTL PMID: 28190256
  79. PD-1 polymorphism is associated with response to therapy in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 27034168
  80. Many studies have shown efficacy of blocking PD-1 or PD-L1 with specific antibodies like pembrolizumab or atezulizumab. In breast cancer, potential response was demonstrated in metastatic triple-negative breast cancers. [review] PMID: 28346916
  81. Studied role of programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1) and programmed death-1 receptor-ligand (PD-L1) in prognosis of renal cell carcinoma. PD-1 was shown not to be a prognostic marker, while prognostic value of PD-L1 is unclear. PMID: 28432616
  82. Pancreatic cancer patients with high PD-1 expression and dense stroma had a better overall survival, while patients with low PD-1 expression and moderate stroma showed worst outcome. PMID: 28030840
  83. To test the in vivo activity of REGN2810, which does not cross-react with murine PD-1, knock-in mice were generated to express a hybrid protein containing the extracellular domain of human PD-1, and transmembrane and intracellular domains of mouse PD-1 PMID: 28265006
  84. The increased frequency of PD-1(+) and TIM-3(+) CD8(+) TILs was inversely correlated with clinical outcome of cetuximab therapy. These results provide us with an insight into understanding dysfunction of CD8+ T cells induced by PD-1 and TIM-3 in the TME during cetuximab therapy as well as provide a rationale to combine cetuximab therapy with blockade of PD-1 and/or TIM-3 to improve clinical outcome for HNSCC patients. PMID: 28408386
  85. PD1, a surface marker associated with Tfh cells, showed increased expression on cTfh subsets in patients PMID: 29293620
  86. The expression level of PD1 in Tfh cells was higher in the HepG2.2.1.5 cocultured group. PMID: 28440484
  87. interplay between donor PD-L1 and recipient PD-1 counter-regulates rejection activity against liver grafts in humans. PMID: 26941095
  88. patients (i) responded to the treatment with cessation of blasts which lasted 1, 17 and 42+ months, (ii) developed skin lesions with CD3+ cell invasion of the epidermis, (iii) had marrow infiltrated with CD8+ lymphocytes which co-expressed PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1 receptor, CD279) in higher proportions than those in the blood PMID: 29304116
  89. In human gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) cell lines, treatment with imatinib abrogated the IFNgamma-induced upregulation of PD-L1 via STAT1 inhibition. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade is a promising strategy to improve the effects of targeted therapy in GISTs PMID: 27470968
  90. The use of PD-1 blockade to date has been a more prolonged approach, and prolonging treatment without significantly improving patient outcome may be less desirable to patients wanting to get on with their lives. PMID: 27881581
  91. Data show that the CC' loop adopts an open conformation in the apo-protein which seems to be mediated by the hydrogen bonds between SER71 and THR120. Binding of PD-L1 accelerates the open-to-closed switch and locks the loop in the closed state through four newly formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds. PMID: 28327740
  92. Report hyperprogression/reduced progression-free survival during anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 28419181
  93. Data indicate clinical responses to PD-1 blockade occur in prostate cancer patients progressing on enzalutamide. PMID: 27429197
  94. Results showed that high CTLA4 but low PD-1 expression were associated with a poor overall survival of patients with breast cancer. PMID: 28488141
  95. Surface expression of PD-1 on CD4+ T cells has a prognostic value in non-small cell lung cancer patients, as high expression of PD-1 is associated with a shorter progression-free survival and overall survival. PMID: 27191652
  96. results not only provide a foundation for further assessment of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry as a predictive marker for anti-PD-1 therapy in colorectal carcinoma PMID: 27443512
  97. Blimp-1 binds to the promoters of PD-1 and TIGIT and positively regulates their expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. PMID: 28629373
  98. high PD-L1 expression by tumor cells was associated with favorable prognosis, whereas an increased number of PD-1+ TILs was correlated with poor prognosis in thymic carcinoma. PMID: 27166394
  99. The majority of primary penile penile squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) tumors express PD-L1, which is associated with high-risk clinicopathologic features and poor clinical outcome. These data provide a rational basis for further investigation of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 immunotherapeutics in patients with advanced penile SqCC PMID: 27217541
  100. Of several immunotherapies being investigated, antibodies that target the programmed cell death protein-1 (nivolumab and pembrolizumab) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ipilimumab) immune checkpoint pathways are among the most promising for patients with Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and are the focus of this review. PMID: 27354668

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Involvement in disease Systemic lupus erythematosus 2 (SLEB2)
Subcellular Location Membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein
Database Links

HGNC: 8760

OMIM: 109100

KEGG: hsa:5133

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000335062

UniGene: Hs.158297

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