T lymphocytes are an important part of the body's immune system. The activation of T cells can resist the invasion of tumor cells and pathogenic bodies, but also lead to autoimmune diseases due to overactivation.
T cell activation is a complex process, including receiving signal stimulation, signal transduction, intracellular enzyme activation, gene transcription expression and cell amplification.
T cell activation requires dual signal stimulation.
First signal: antigen peptide -MHC molecular complex on antigen presenting cells binds to TCR specifically.
Second signal: interaction between T cells and costimulatory molecules present on the surface of antigen presenting cells produces costimulatory signals, of which CD28 and B7(CD80/CD86) are relatively important.
The integration of the two signals was the most effective way to induce T cell activation, while the lack of costimulation signals resulted in decreased T cell response, and in some cases can induce tolerance or T cell anergy. Blocking the co-stimulus signal of T cell activation can negatively regulate T cell activity and induce T cell immune tolerance.
Intracellular signaling is accomplished by the following kinases and phosphatases. The molecules involved in TCR signal transduction mainly include upstream kinases (Lck, Fyn, ZAP-70, Itk), scaffold proteins (LAT, Gads, SLP-76, Grb2), phospholipases, phosphatases, etc. Activation of TCR signals not only induces T cell proliferation and cytokine production, but also promotes T cell differentiation and T cell function.
The T cell receptor is located on the surface of T cells, which specifically recognizes antigenic peptides presented by MHC on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, and activates signal pathways such as ERK, JNK, and NF-κB in T cells. Through several different signaling pathways, many transcription factors associated with cell division and differentiation are activated to regulate cell functions such as T cell proliferation, differentiation, death, and cytokine release. Typical intracellular signals activated by TCR also include: MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinase), PKC (Protein Kinase C), calcium signal pathways.
|LAT||LAT Antibody||LAT Protein||LAT cDNA||LAT ELISA Kit|
|LCK||LCK Antibody||LCK Protein||LCK cDNA||LCK ELISA Kit|
|LCP2||LCP2 Antibody||LCP2 Protein||LCP2 cDNA||LCP2 ELISA Kit|
|MALT1||MALT1 Antibody||MALT1 Protein||MALT1 cDNA||MALT1 ELISA Kit|
|MAP2K1||MAP2K1 Antibody||MAP2K1 Protein||MAP2K1 cDNA||MAP2K1 ELISA Kit|
|MAP2K2||MAP2K2 Antibody||MAP2K2 Protein||MAP2K2 cDNA||MAP2K2 ELISA Kit|
|MAP2K7||MAP2K7 Antibody||MAP2K7 Protein||MAP2K7 cDNA||MAP2K7 ELISA Kit|
|MAP3K14||MAP3K14 Antibody||MAP3K14 Protein||MAP3K14 cDNA||MAP3K14 ELISA Kit|
|MAP3K7||MAP3K7 Antibody||MAP3K7 Protein||MAP3K7 cDNA||MAP3K7 ELISA Kit|
|MAP3K8||MAP3K8 Antibody||MAP3K8 Protein||MAP3K8 cDNA||MAP3K8 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK1||MAPK1 Antibody||MAPK1 Protein||MAPK1 cDNA||MAPK1 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK11||MAPK11 Antibody||MAPK11 Protein||MAPK11 cDNA||MAPK11 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK12||MAPK12 Antibody||MAPK12 Protein||MAPK12 cDNA||MAPK12 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK13||MAPK13 Antibody||MAPK13 Protein||MAPK13 cDNA||MAPK13 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK14||MAPK14 Antibody||MAPK14 Protein||MAPK14 cDNA||MAPK14 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK3||MAPK3 Antibody||MAPK3 Protein||MAPK3 cDNA||MAPK3 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK9||MAPK9 Antibody||MAPK9 Protein||MAPK9 cDNA||MAPK9 ELISA Kit|
|NCK1||NCK1 Antibody||NCK1 Protein||NCK1 cDNA||NCK1 ELISA Kit|
|NCK2||NCK2 Antibody||NCK2 Protein||NCK2 cDNA||NCK2 ELISA Kit|
|NFATC1||NFATC1 Antibody||NFATC1 Protein||NFATC1 cDNA||NFATC1 ELISA Kit|