The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network composed of actin polymers and associated actin binding proteins. The actin cytoskeleton was first isolated as a component of the actomyosin complex in muscle cells and was later identified as a component of all eukaryotic cells. It is highly conserved throughout evolution.
The actin cytoskeleton is a primary determinant of cell shape and motility. Combining with the other parts of the cytoskeleton including intermediate filaments and microtubules, the actin cytoskeleton is mainly responsible for mediating various important cellular processes such as cell structural support, axonal growth, cell migration, organelle transport and phagocytosis.
For the actin cytoskeleton to perform these functions, its organization requires tight regulation and many of the associated actin binding proteins are therefore probable targets of the cellular signaling pathways that modulate the assembly of actin.
Signaling to the cytoskeleton through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), integrins, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and numerous other specialized receptors, such as the semaphorin 1a receptor PlexinA, can lead to diverse effects on cell activity, including changes in cell shape, migration, proliferation, and survival.
Intracellular regulation of the cell’s response to external cues occurs through a large number of signaling cascades that include the Rho family of small GTPases (Rho, Rac, and Cdc42) and their activators, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), their downstream protein kinase effectors, including Rho-kinase/ROCK and p21 activated kinase (PAK), as well as through direct binding of the GTPases to several actin regulatory proteins, such as mDia, WAVE, and WASP.
These cascades converge on proteins that directly regulate the behavior and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, including actin interacting regulatory proteins such as Arp2/3 complex, Ena/VASP, profilin, and gelsolin. Signaling through different pathways can lead to the formation of distinct actin-dependent structures whose coordinated assembly/disassembly is important for directed cell migration and other cellular behaviors.
|FGF21||FGF21 Antibody||FGF21 Protein||FGF21 cDNA||FGF21 ELISA Kit|
|FGF22||FGF22 Antibody||FGF22 Protein||FGF22 cDNA||FGF22 ELISA Kit|
|FGF23||FGF23 Antibody||FGF23 Protein||FGF23 cDNA||FGF23 ELISA Kit|
|FGF3||FGF3 Antibody||FGF3 Protein||FGF3 cDNA||FGF3 ELISA Kit|
|FGF4||FGF4 Antibody||FGF4 Protein||FGF4 cDNA||FGF4 ELISA Kit|
|FGF5||FGF5 Antibody||FGF5 Protein||FGF5 cDNA||FGF5 ELISA Kit|
|FGF6||FGF6 Antibody||FGF6 Protein||FGF6 cDNA||FGF6 ELISA Kit|
|FGF7||FGF7 Antibody||FGF7 Protein||FGF7 cDNA||FGF7 ELISA Kit|
|FGF8||FGF8 Antibody||FGF8 Protein||FGF8 cDNA||FGF8 ELISA Kit|
|FGF9||FGF9 Antibody||FGF9 Protein||FGF9 cDNA||FGF9 ELISA Kit|
|FGFR1||FGFR1 Antibody||FGFR1 Protein||FGFR1 cDNA||FGFR1 ELISA Kit|
|FGFR2||FGFR2 Antibody||FGFR2 Protein||FGFR2 cDNA||FGFR2 ELISA Kit|
|FGFR3||FGFR3 Antibody||FGFR3 Protein||FGFR3 cDNA||FGFR3 ELISA Kit|
|FGFR4||FGFR4 Antibody||FGFR4 Protein||FGFR4 cDNA||FGFR4 ELISA Kit|
|FN1||FN1 Antibody||FN1 Protein||FN1 cDNA||FN1 ELISA Kit|
|GIT1||GIT1 Antibody||GIT1 Protein||GIT1 cDNA||GIT1 ELISA Kit|
|GNA12||GNA12 Antibody||GNA12 Protein||GNA12 cDNA||GNA12 ELISA Kit|
|GNA13||GNA13 Antibody||GNA13 Protein||GNA13 cDNA||GNA13 ELISA Kit|
|GNG12||GNG12 Antibody||GNG12 Protein||GNG12 cDNA||GNG12 ELISA Kit|
|GSN||GSN Antibody||GSN Protein||GSN cDNA||GSN ELISA Kit|