Dendritic Cell Receptor
Dentritic Cell (DC) was originally found in the spleen by Steinman and Cohn in 1973. It is the most powerful antigen presenting cell (APC), and induces the initial immune response with unique function. DC is named by many tree or false premises due to maturity. The antigen presentation of DC is significantly stronger than macrophages, which can follow the classic tissue compatible antigen I (MHCI) pathway to present exogenous antigen, and activate cytotoxic T cells (CTL). It plays an important role in antivirus and tumors Immunization.
In tumor microenvironments, there are various inhibitory cytokines acting on DC, resulting in abnormal DC function, which in turn allows tumor cells to escape the monitoring of the immune system. With the in-depth study of DC biological knowledge and its immune response mechanism, the development of DC vaccines is getting more and more rapid. The successful anti-cancer vaccine constructs depend on its ability to induce body fluids and cellular immunity against specific antigens. It is a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy by targeting dendritic cell receptors via antibody-mediated antigen uptake mechanisms to promote cancer antigen loading .
So, what types of dendritic cell receptors are commonly used in cancer immunotherapy? Currently, a variety of receptors have been found to be expressed on DCs, including mannose receptor (MR), DC-SIGN, scavenger receptor (SR), DEC-205, and toll-like receptors (Figure 1). Targeting these receptors is emerging as an effective strategy for antigen delivery in DC-based anticancer immunotherapy .
Figure 1. Schematic representation of dendritic cells expressing a number of different cell surface receptors which are targets for antigen targeting therapies.
1. Mannose Receptor
Mannose receptor (MR), also known as CD206, is a carbohydrate binding protein expressed by DC and macrophages, and belongs to a multilectin receptor. MR can bind to the carbohydrates of yeast, viruses and bacterial cells, resulting in endocytosis and phagocytosis. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 can bind to MRs on vaginal epithelial cells and induce matrix metalloproteinase, thereby promoting the transfer of HIV across the epithelial epithelium. Human has two types of MR, each by its own gene encoding, including mannose receptor C1 (MRC1) and mannose receptor C2 (MRC2).
Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-capture non-integrin (DC-SIGN), also known as CD209 or Clec4L, is a C-type membrane lectin that is found in immature DCs, macrophages, endothelial blood vessels. It is abundantly expressed on cells, atherosclerotic plaques and lymphatic vessels. Like MR, DC-SIGN recognizes carbohydrates including mannose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, and N-acetylglucosamine residues to mediate endocytosis, thereby activating adaptive immune responses against pathogens. DC-SIGN also binds yeast-derived mannan and Lewis blood group antigens, and sialylation or sulfation of Lex completely abolishes binding to DC-SIGN. DC-SIGN contributes to HIV pathogenesis. HIV-1 gp120 binds more than 80% to DC-SIGN on monocyte-derived DCs and binds residual CD4, whereas HIV-1 binds only to CD4 on blood DCs. After binding to DC-SIGN on DCs, HIV-1 is transported by DCs into lymphoid tissues, thereby promoting HIV-1 infection targeting target CD4+ T cells.
3. Popular Targets Related DC Receptor
CUSABIO has listed some popular targets related DC receptor. Click on the corresponding target to view all the reagents related to the target.
 Hossain, M. K., & Wall, K. A. Use of Dendritic Cell Receptors as Targets for Enhancing Anti-Cancer Immune Responses [J]. Cancers, 2019, 11(3), 418.
 Apostolopoulos V, Thalhammer T, Tzakos AG, Stojanovska L. Targeting antigens to dendritic cell receptors for vaccine development [J]. J Drug Deliv. 2013;2013:869718.