Recombinant Human Transthyretin (TTR) (Active)

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Code CSB-MP025270HUh6
Size $228
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.

  • Activity
    Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. Immobilized RBP4 (CSB-MP019483HU) at 5 μg/ml can bind human TTR, the EC50 of human TTR protein is 284.7-391.7 ng/ml. Biological Activity Assay

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Product Details

Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Less than 1.0 EU/ug as determined by LAL method.
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. Immobilized RBP4 (CSB-MP019483HU) at 5 μg/ml can bind human TTR, the EC50 of human TTR protein is 284.7-391.7 ng/ml.
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Research Area
Alternative Names
ATTR (Prealbumin) (TBPA) (PALB)
Molecular Characterization
Homo sapiens (Human)
Mammalian cell
Expression Region
Target Protein Sequence
Mol. Weight
43.9 kDa
Protein Length
Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info
C-terminal FC-Myc-tagged
Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
3-7 business days
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA
Please contact us to get it.

Human transthyretin (TTR) amino acids Gly21-Glu147 with an FC-Myc-tag at the C-terminus were expressed in mammalian cells. The resulting product is the recombinant full-length of mature human TTR protein. This TTR protein was validated by SDS-PAGE analysis, and its purity is greater than 90%. It migrated to the molecular mass band of about 45 kDa on the gel. Its endotoxin level is less than 1.0 EU/ug as determined by the LAL method. This TTR protein can bind to the immobilized RNP4 in the functional ELISA, with an EC50 of 284.7-391.7 ng/ml. It shows the TTR is an active protein. And it is available now.

TTR is a tetrameric transport protein mainly synthesized in the liver, choroid plexus, and retinal pigment epithelium. In addition to transporting thyroxin and retinol throughout the body and brain, TTR has recently been shown to be involved in neuronal health preservation in both central and peripheral nervous systems, cellular fate determination, as well as modulation of proliferation and metabolism.

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Target Background

Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene References into Functions
  1. familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) carriers and patients are in an inflammatory state, with the presence of mutated TTR being a trigger of inflammation, especially in FAP carriers. PMID: 28484271
  2. In this review, we discussed the role of Ttr in CNS and its possible role in the neuroprotection mechanism of Semax. PMID: 30383932
  3. serum prealbumin, and its changes were independent predictors of worse prognosis in acute kidney injury (AKI), and could be potential surrogates to better predict 90-day mortality. PMID: 28145481
  4. T139R mutation may expose the buried regions of TTR protein which help in the self association and the increase in the stability may help in the TTR deposition. Structural analysis indicated that F and H strands of TTR are more prone to aggregation. Thus, T139R mutation might cause these residues to be aggregation prone and change in folding rate and validated TTR monomer in diseased cases by Western blot analysis. PMID: 29564986
  5. High TTR expression is associated with hypertriglyceridemia. PMID: 29747616
  6. Our study characterizes G101S TTR as a stable and N-glycosylable TTR, which may be linked to its non-amyloidogenic characteristic. G101S TTR had slower rate of tetramer dissociation and lower propensity for amyloid fibril formation, especially at mild low pH (4.2 and 4.5), and was likely to have strong hydrophobic interaction among TTR monomers, suggesting relatively higher stability of G101S TTR compared with WT TTR. PMID: 29607936
  7. studies of a unique duplication mutation explain its diflunisal-resistant nature, identify misfolding pathways for amyloidogenic TTR variants, and provide therapeutic targets to inhibit amyloid fibril formation by variant TTR. PMID: 29941560
  8. At physiological temperature, the monomeric intermediate formed by wild-type TTR under mildly acidic conditions rapidly aggregates into species that are invisible to NMR, leading to loss of the NMR signal at the same rate as the turbidity increase. PMID: 29915031
  9. We report here three non-related Hungarian cases of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy with non-Val30Met mutations (His88Arg in two cases, Phe33Leu in one case) PMID: 29465889
  10. A novel amyloidogenic TTR mutation was found in a Dutch family PMID: 28460244
  11. Patients with ATTRV30M amyloidosis in non-endemic areas and patients with non-V30M ATTR amyloidosis occurred more frequently than previously believed, and their clinical manifestations were diverse. PMID: 29177547
  12. Results indicate that TTR stability is important for its recently described functions in assisting Abeta transport at the BBB and at the liver and also in regulating LRP1 levels and activity. TTR stabilization can serve as an avenue to increase both Abeta elimination and LRP1 levels, which in turn will further participate in Abeta clearance. PMID: 28570028
  13. Findings are the first to show that TTR deposition increases disease severity in the murine DMM and aging model of OA. PMID: 28941045
  14. This study demonstrated that both cardiac and peripheral vasomotor autonomic dysfunctions were prevalent in late-onset FAP ATTR Val30Met patients from non-endemic areas, even in those without orthostatic intolerance. PMID: 28983659
  15. could potentially downregulate the TTR promoter activity; c.200+4A>G might influence the constitutive splicing of TTR mRNA PMID: 27562180
  16. Systematic computational prioritization identified a missense mutation c.G148T in TTR gene which results in a p.V50L substitution known to cause transthyretin-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy. PMID: 27212199
  17. This stuidy found two mutations, Thr49Ala(p.Thr69Ala) and Tyr116Ser(p.Tyr136 Ser), were detected in Chinese familial amyloid polyneuropathy patients for the first time. PMID: 27859927
  18. The results suggest an association between presumed nonamyloidogenic mutations in the TTR gene and the development of autonomic and small fiber neuropathy. PMID: 28556268
  19. Clinical, electrophysiological, histopathological, and genetic characteristics of 17 patients from Turkey (5 female, 13 male) from nine families with polyneuropathy and mutations in TTR were evaluated. Sequence analysis of the TTR gene revealed five mutations (Val30Met, Glu89Gln, Gly53Glu, Glu54Gly and Gly47Glu). Study suggests that a cohort of patients from Turkey with TTR-FAP exhibits clinical and genetic heterogeneity. PMID: 27238058
  20. It is one of the major Abeta-binding proteins acting as a neuroprotector in AD. In addition, TTR cleaves Abeta peptide in vitro. PMID: 28780366
  21. Stroke patients with lower transthyretin levels had poorer Functional Independence Measure outcomes and tended not to be discharged to their own homes. PMID: 28314625
  22. TTR expression varied across human populations PMID: 28335735
  23. Cell-based experiments showed that overexpression of TTR could improve HK-2 cell viability and inhibit apoptosis. PMID: 29040977
  24. These results clarify a negligible degree of unfolding of beta-strand C in the formation of the amyloidogenic state and establish the concept that TTR is a highly plastic protein able to populate at least three distinct conformational states. PMID: 28478513
  25. A strong phenotypic heterogeneity was demonstrated across coding mutations causing TTR amyloidosis. Non-coding variants affect TTR expression and, consequently, phenotypic presentation in carriers of amyloidogenic mutations. PMID: 28635949
  26. Serum prealbumin was significantly lower in patients with versus those without post-stroke depression, and was a significant predictor of post-stroke depression after adjusting for confounding risk factors. PMID: 27693925
  27. TTR induced apoptosis of retinal microvascular endothelial cells in an environment that simulated hypoxia. PMID: 28950253
  28. Data suggest that transthyretin exhibits site-specific solvation of the indole ring of tryptophans W41 and W79; these studies involved incorporation of tryptophan labeled with fluorine at 5 or 6 positions (5-fluorotryptophan/5FW or 6-fluorotryptophan/6FW) into recombinant TTR; replacement of fluorine at 5-position of a tryptophan with one at adjacent 6-position emphasizes delicate balance of stability in TTR tetramer. PMID: 28920433
  29. This study shows that highly destabilized, aggregation-prone TTR variants are secreted as both native tetramers and non-native conformations that accumulate as high-molecular-weight oligomers. PMID: 27720586
  30. The role of transthyretin in normal pregnancy is reviewed. PMID: 27650990
  31. the role of H88 and the hydrogen bond network in the stability of TTR PMID: 28563699
  32. we identify a somatic mosaicism, in several subjects affected by familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, involving the dominant c.325G>C mutation of the TTR gene PMID: 28508289
  33. The role of Transthyretin in the regulation of Ubc9 SUMOylation PMID: 27501389
  34. Gene sequencing revealed a phenylalanine-->isoleucine mutation in the 33rd position of exon 2 of TTR in 1 patient of 1 pedigree, confirming the diagnosis of FAP. Two patients subsequently were found to have sensorimotor autonomic neuropathy, whereas 2 others had subclinical autonomic dysfunction. PMID: 28412068
  35. TTR V30M aggregates and autophagy impairment are associated with Transthyretin amyloidoses . PMID: 27382986
  36. In Afro-Caribbean patients living in London, ATTR V122I is an underappreciated cause of heart failure, and cardiomyopathy is often misattributed to hypertension. PMID: 27618855
  37. Val122Ile is the most common transthyretin mutation, and neurologic phenotypic expression differs between wild-type disease and Val122Ile, but survival from enrollment in THAOS does not. PMID: 27386769
  38. In the bound state, the Hsp90 dimer predominantly populates an open conformation, and transthyretin retains its globular structure. PMID: 28218749
  39. findings show that, at physiologically-relevant protein concentrations, the refolding pathways of WT-TTR and amyloidogenic variant V30M-TTR follow a common mechanism observed among other tetrameric proteins; although sharing the same kinetic mechanism, V30M-TTR refolds at a slower rate than WT-TTR, a feature that may favor the formation of transient species leading to kinetic partition into amyloidogenic pathways PMID: 27589730
  40. This study reports the discovery of a TTR mutant, N98A, that was more effective at inhibiting ABETA aggregation than wild-type (WT) TTR, although N98A and WT bound ABETA equally. PMID: 27099354
  41. Results provide evidence that TTR acts as a carrier of Abeta at the blood-brain-barrier and liver, using LRP1. PMID: 26837706
  42. The study reports a Japanese family with hereditary ATTR amyloidosis with the TTR G47R mutation in which one family member developed the disease at the age of 13. PMID: 27206384
  43. a point mutation was identified in the upstream regulatory region of the TTR gene in a Han Chinese family with familial vitreous amyloidosis. PMID: 27051017
  44. Data indicte that the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to crystallize transthyretin (TTR complexes have resulted in a new trigonal polymorph with two tetramers in the asymmetric unit. PMID: 26796656
  45. A novel autosomally inherited Lys90Glu mutation in the TTR gene in a family with vitreous amyloidosis and carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID: 26828956
  46. illustrates the diversity of symptoms encountered in homozygote ATTR V30M patients PMID: 26587769
  47. Caucasian patients with the Val142Ile pathogenic variant have phenotypic manifestations similar to African-Americans PMID: 26428663
  48. Data suggest that well-structured AB loop regions of TTR in native/homotetrameric/stable state become dissociated/disordered/unfolded at low pH; during refolding, structural perturbations in AB loop appear and facilitate misfolding and amyloid formation. PMID: 26998642
  49. Eight water molecules stabilize the dimeric structure through an extensive hydrogen-bonding network. PMID: 26527142
  50. Study elucidated alterations in TTR, APP and the global gene expression profile in the frontal cortex between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and nondemented control brain PMID: 26444765

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Involvement in disease
Amyloidosis, transthyretin-related (AMYL-TTR); Hyperthyroxinemia, dystransthyretinemic (DTTRH); Carpal tunnel syndrome 1 (CTS1)
Subcellular Location
Secreted. Cytoplasm.
Protein Families
Transthyretin family
Tissue Specificity
Detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (at protein level). Highly expressed in choroid plexus epithelial cells. Detected in retina pigment epithelium and liver.
Database Links

HGNC: 12405

OMIM: 105210

KEGG: hsa:7276

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000237014

UniGene: Hs.427202

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