STAR Antibody

Code CSB-PA022798LA01HU
Size US$299Purchase it in Cusabio online store
(only available for customers from the US)
  • Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded human adrenal gland tissue using CSB-PA022798LA01HU at dilution of 1:100

  • Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded human testis tissue using CSB-PA022798LA01HU at dilution of 1:100

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Product Details

Full Product Name Rabbit anti-Homo sapiens (Human) STAR Polyclonal antibody
Uniprot No. P49675
Target Names STAR
Alternative Names Cholesterol trafficker antibody; Luteinizing hormone induced protein antibody; mitochondrial antibody; Mitochondrial steroid acute regulatory protein antibody; StAR antibody; StAR related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 1 antibody; STAR_HUMAN antibody; StARD1 antibody; START domain containing 1 antibody; START domain containing protein 1 antibody; START domain-containing protein 1 antibody; Steroid acute regulatory protein antibody; Steroidogenic acute regulator antibody; Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein antibody; Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mitochondrial antibody
Raised in Rabbit
Species Reactivity Human
Immunogen Recombinant Human Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, mitochondrial protein (64-285AA)
Immunogen Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Conjugate Non-conjugated
Clonality Polyclonal
Isotype IgG
Purification Method >95%, Protein G purified
Concentration It differs from different batches. Please contact us to confirm it.
Buffer Preservative: 0.03% Proclin 300
Constituents: 50% Glycerol, 0.01M PBS, PH 7.4
Form Liquid
Tested Applications ELISA, IHC
Recommended Dilution
Application Recommended Dilution
IHC 1:20-1:200
Protocols ELISA Protocol
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Protocol
Troubleshooting and FAQs Antibody FAQs
Storage Upon receipt, store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 1-3 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time maybe differs from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.


The Attenuating Effect of the Intraovarian Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 on Age-Related Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chicken Follicular Cells. J Yao,Oxid Med Cell Longev,2020

Applications: IHC
Antibody dilution factor: 1:100
Review: STAR immunohistochemical staining of D580-SWFs after coculture with D280-SYF-GCs for 72 h. Scale bar: 100 μm (c, left) and 50 μm (c, right). Values were the mean ± SEM of three experiments. Different lowercase letters indicated significant difference (p < 0:05).
PMID: 32587659

Promotion of the prehierarchical follicle growth by postovulatory follicles involving PGE2–EP2 signaling in chickens. Xin al,J CELL PHYSIOL,2018

Sample type: Granulosa cells
Sample species: Chicken
Application: IF/IHC
Review: The POFs were cultured for 72 hr. H&E staining was used to evaluate the morphology of POFs after 72 hr in culture. STAR and CYP11A1 immunohistochemistry staining and BrdU incorporation were performed to characterize the POFs’ culture
system. Scale bar: 50 μm. The POFs were incubated with BrdU. Red fluorescence represents BrdU‐labeled cells. Blue fluorescence represents the DAPI.
PMID: 29923198

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Target Data

Function Plays a key role in steroid hormone synthesis by enhancing the metabolism of cholesterol into pregnenolone. Mediates the transfer of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it is cleaved to pregnenolone.
Gene References into Functions
  1. The present study revealed that StAR overexpression can reduce hepatic lipid accumulation, regulate glucose metabolism and attenuate insulin resistance through a mechanism involving the activation of FXR. PMID: 28153708
  2. Reduced fractalkine levels were found in follicular fluid and granulosa cells, accompanied by decreased progesterone production and reduced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in the granulosa cells of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Administration of fractalkine reversed the inhibition of progesterone and StAR expression. PMID: 27386819
  3. Remarkably, in terms of fluorescence response, 20NP slightly outperforms commonly used 22NC and can thus be used for screening of various potential ligands by a competition mechanism in the future. PMID: 29408456
  4. solution structure of human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein STARD1 studied by small-angle X-ray scattering PMID: 28576490
  5. immunohistochemical staining for StAR is a reliable pathological approach for the diagnosis and classification of adrenocortical adenomas with cAMP/PKA signaling-activating mutations. PMID: 27606678
  6. Data suggest that expression of STAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and AKR1B10 (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10) is down-regulated in high-grade versus low-grade endometrial tumors; expression of AKR1B10 correlates with body mass index, with up-regulation of expression of AKR1B10 in obese patients with endometrial tumors. PMID: 28232277
  7. target of the microRNA let-7, which itself is regulated by the long noncoding RNA H19 PMID: 27813675
  8. Immunostaining of CLOCK and PER2 protein was detected in the granulosa cells of dominant antral follicles but was absent in the primordial, primary, or preantral follicles of human ovaries.Oscillating expression of the circadian gene PER2 can be induced by testosterone in human granulosa cells in vitro. Expression of STAR also displayed an oscillating pattern after testosterone stimulation PMID: 27614897
  9. Current level of understanding on tissue-specific and hormone-induced regulation of STAR expression and steroidogenesis, and insights into a number of cholesterol and/or steroid coupled physiological consequences.[review] PMID: 26271515
  10. activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway. PMID: 26001835
  11. amino acid of mutant position of the novel p.E123K was highly conserved in ten different species and was predicted to have impacts on the structure and function of StAR protein by the PolyPhen-2 prediction software PMID: 26014698
  12. Mutagenesis confirmed that Arg(312) and Arg(313) are crucial for this mode of regulation, and novel interactions with the START domain PMID: 25002576
  13. StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, the matrix LON protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and AFG3L2:SPG7/paraplegin. PMID: 24422629
  14. Hypoxia in pulmonary artery endothelial cells results in upregulation of STAR protein. PMID: 25001622
  15. BMP15 down-regulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via ALK3-mediated SMAD1/5/8 signaling. PMID: 24140593
  16. The novel mutation p.Trp147Arg of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein causes classic lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia with adrenal insufficiency and 46,XY disorder of sex development. PMID: 23920000
  17. Data suggest that mutation analysis of the STAR gene is essential for definitive diagnosis, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis of Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH). PMID: 23748066
  18. Cholesterol-mediated conformational changes in StAR are essential for steroidogenesis. PMID: 24053410
  19. Expression of StAR and P45011beta (cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily B polypeptide 1) is down-regulated in adrenocortical cells and neurons under oxidative stress by ALADIN (triple A syndrome protein, human) knockdown. PMID: 23825130
  20. deficiencies in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme cause neonatal adrenal failure PMID: 23158025
  21. biochemical, genetic, and long-term clinical data in 5 Greek patients from 4 families with mutations in STAR gene (46, XX and 46, XY disorders of sex development): All patients presented in early infancy with adrenal insufficiency. [CASE STUDIES] PMID: 23211570
  22. Mutant FOXL2 in granulosa cell tumors is able to differentially regulate the expression of many genes, including two well known FOXL2 targets, StAR and CYP19A. PMID: 23029457
  23. Mutations in the CYP11A1 gene encoding cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme cause disordered pregnenolone synthesis, and STAR mutations do not necessarily results in typical congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. PMID: 23330251
  24. The status of ARO and StAR contribute to estrogen synthesis in situ, especially for the regulation of elastic fiber formation, and to testosterone synthesis, which may be associated with hair growth, respectively. PMID: 22634420
  25. Allelic losses of the loci containing StAR have significant prognostic value for intermediate-risk prostate cancer. PMID: 22213075
  26. The STAR mutation spectrum has been investigated and a novel STAR mutation functionally analyzed in Korean patients with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia; p.Q258X is the most common STAR mutation in Korea. PMID: 21846663
  27. analysis of angiotensin II-dependent transcriptional activation of human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene by a 25-kDa cAMP-responsive element modulator protein isoform and Yin Yang 1 PMID: 22253417
  28. report a novel transcriptional cooperation between GATA factors and cJUN on the mouse Star and human STAR promoters in MA-10 Leydig cells. This cooperation was observed with different GATA members, whereas only cJUN could cooperate with GATA factors PMID: 21350237
  29. StAR mutations located in the cholesterol binding pocket (V187M, R188C, R192C, G221D/S) seem to cause non-classic lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia PMID: 21647419
  30. a biological marker for Leydig cells and sex-cord stromal tumors PMID: 21217523
  31. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adiponectin on StAR protein expression, steroidogenic genes, and cortisol production and to dissect the signalling cascades involved in the activation of StAR expression. PMID: 21334384
  32. The role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis, relating them to steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, arachidonic acid metabolism and mitochondrial rearrangement, is described. PMID: 21145937
  33. The considerable extra energy expenditure that is required for synthesis of the long mRNA is used to provide a refined control of StAR expression. PMID: 21147196
  34. StAR, its expression pattern and the clinical consequences of the loss of its activity. PMID: 21164258
  35. GDF9 attenuates the suppressive effects of activin A on StAR expression and progesterone production by increasing the expression of inhibin B, which acts as an activin A competitor. PMID: 20660033
  36. novel SF-1 binding sites between 3,000 and 3,400 bp upstream of StAR PMID: 20601698
  37. study describes four patients with nonclassic or atypical congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) identifes their StAR mutations and characterizes the activities of the mutants to explore genotype/phenotype correlations PMID: 20444910
  38. No associations between StAR SNPs and endometrial cancer risk were observed. PMID: 20199803
  39. Overexpression of StAR decreased number of apoptotic macrophages by decreasing expression of pro-apoptotic genes Caspase-3 & Bax mRNA, & through increasing expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 mRNA levels in absence & presence of Ox-LDL. PMID: 19946756
  40. Increased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression is associated with endometriosis severity. PMID: 19930843
  41. FOXL2 is sumoylated by Ubc9, and this Ubc9-mediated sumoylation is essential to the transcriptional activity of FOXL2 on the StAR promoter. PMID: 19744555
  42. Leptin acts through the MAPK pathway to downregulate cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone production in immortalized human granulosa cells. PMID: 19849856
  43. No mutations in MC2R, MRAP or STAR were identified in any patient with Addison's disease PMID: 19903795
  44. StAR picks up cholesterol from a source in the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and not from cytoplasmic cholesterol; StAR is stabilized at the OMM by cholesterol on its way to the mitochondrial matrix. PMID: 19899816
  45. StAR protein is an absolute requirement in the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, the transfer of cholesterol into the mitochondria [review] PMID: 12044915
  46. StAR can transfer cholesterol between synthetic membranes without other protein components found in mitochondria PMID: 12372832
  47. StAR requires structural alterations to allow cholesterol binding, most evidently by C-terminal alpha-helix above U-shaped beta-barrel. Unfolding of helix probable and leads to 2% subpopulation of partially unfolded StAR. PMID: 12530644
  48. modulation of DAX-1 and steroidogenic factor-1 intracellular levels in granulosa cells suggests that these transcription factors could be involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase suppression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression PMID: 12727988
  49. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in the normal human brain and intracranial tumors. PMID: 12834921
  50. hCG-stimulated steroidogenic response in the mid- and late luteal phase is correlated with increased StAR mRNA and protein abundance PMID: 12843197

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Involvement in disease Adrenal hyperplasia 1 (AH1)
Subcellular Location Mitochondrion
Tissue Specificity Expressed in gonads, adrenal cortex and kidney.
Database Links

HGNC: 11359

OMIM: 201710

KEGG: hsa:6770

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000276449

UniGene: Hs.521535

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