Recombinant Human Prothrombin(F2)

Code CSB-YP007923HU
Size US$1916
  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.

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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names F2
Uniprot No. P00734
Research Area Cardiovascular
Alternative Names coagulation factor II (thrombin); Coagulation factor II; F2; Factor II; Prepro coagulation factor II; Prothrombin; prothrombin B-chain; PT; RPRGL2; serine protease; THPH1; THRB; THRB_HUMAN; Thrombin heavy chain
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source Yeast
Expression Region 44-622aa
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 67.3kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.
Gene References into Functions
  1. When endothelial cells are incubated with antiphospholipid antibodies thrombin generation is increased. PMID: 30031291
  2. No significant difference in FVL genotype between patients and controls was observed, whereas high frequencies of PRT G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C mutations in the Hb S patients PMID: 30200836
  3. This study proved that Berberine (BBR) is a direct thrombin inhibitor that has activity in inhibiting thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. BBR may be a potential candidate for the development of safe and effective thrombin-inhibiting drugs PMID: 28276481
  4. Thrombin generation had a limited impact as biomarker of venous thromboembolism. PMID: 30093507
  5. results explain the reduced pro-coagulant activity of the W215A mutant and demonstrate the allosteric connection between Trp215, the sodium-binding loop, and the active site PMID: 29634247
  6. Polymorphisms of F2, PROC, PROZ, and F13A1 Genes are Associated With Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Han Women. PMID: 29363996
  7. the prothrombotic activity of FII is the result of a polymorphism and of a missense mutation, whereas that of FV derives only from a polymorphism. The observation that a clotting factor defect may be associated with both bleeding or venous thrombosis depending on the site of the mutation has caused an extensive reevaluation of the blood clotting mechanism. PMID: 29690772
  8. Findings provide evidence for a relationship between two genes-three mutations-of the cardiovascular disease (CVD genes panel and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). These genotypes include the heterozygous state of the factor II G20210A mutation. PMID: 29974397
  9. digestion of thrombin by P. aeruginosa elastase leads to the release of the C-terminal thrombin-derived peptide FYT21, which inhibits pro-inflammatory responses to several pathogen-associated molecular patterns. PMID: 27181065
  10. Prothrombin gene mutation is rare in Budd-Chiari syndrome patients in India. PMID: 29616413
  11. In HBV-related cirrhosis, the combination of miR-122, AFP and PIVKA-II enables the identification of patients at higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development. PMID: 28650134
  12. Data, including data using network analysis, suggest that angiotensinogen (AGT), mitogen-activated protein kinase-14 (MAPK14), and prothrombin (F2) in placental villous tissues are core factors in early embryonic development; these studies involved proteomics and bioinformatics analysis of altered protein expression in placental villous tissue from early recurrent miscarriage patients in comparison to control tissues. PMID: 29277264
  13. Arg596Gln mutation is a risk factor for Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism due to its moderately decreased clotting activity but strong resistance to antithrombin inhibition. PMID: 29331940
  14. The induction of TG by BXPC3 cells was mainly driven by the TF pathway while TG generation triggered by MCF7 cells was also driven by FXII activation. PMID: 29075790
  15. we were not able to confirm the association between the polymorphisms of f5, f2, and mthfr and pregnancy loss in Bosnian women PMID: 28488549
  16. Platelets were activated in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients, and such activation was at least partially attributed to the thrombin-protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway. PMID: 29141676
  17. The meta-analysis enabled us to underline the importance of DCP in the refinement of the eligibility criteria of hepatocellular cancer (HCC)patients for liver transplant (LT). This information, based on Japanese studies performed in the setting of living-donor LT only, needs further validation in the Western world both in the setting of post-mortem and living-donor LT. PMID: 28561879
  18. HCC [hepatocellular carcinoma] patients who are sero-positive for DCP [Des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin] and sero-negative for AFP[Alpha-fetoprotein] have significantly higher levels of serum ALT[alanine aminotransferase]; serum ALT levels may be of diagnostic importance in AFP-negative, HBV-related HCC [hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma] patients. PMID: 29192630
  19. Evaluation of initial thrombin generation is useful to distinguish between beneficial coagulation activation and hazardous haemostatic alteration, and to predict multiorgan dysfunction development and poor outcome in septic patients. PMID: 28166112
  20. Prothrombin showed statistically significant differences between the groups of septic and non-septic burn patients. PMID: 28454850
  21. The data indicate that prothrombin Arg596 missense mutations lead to antithrombin (AT) and thrombomodulin (TM) resistance in the variant thrombins and suggest that prothrombin Arg596 is important for AT- and TM-mediated anticoagulation. PMID: 27604259
  22. application of electrical stimulus modifies the molecular interactions within the complex and consequently, electrical field can be used to modulate the association between the thrombin and its aptamer. PMID: 27874042
  23. The G20210A prothrombin mutation carriers after venous thromboembolism have unfavourable fibrin clot characteristics, including lower permeability and impaired lysis compared with non-carriers. Rivaroxaban treatment cannot abolish more prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype observed in prothrombin mutation carriers following VTE. PMID: 28771277
  24. prothrombin-20210-mutations are playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of cerebral sinus vein thrombosis, but not in arterial ischemic stroke PMID: 28869458
  25. Patients with early onset preeclampsia are characterised by an attenuated coagulation response characterised by reduced thrombin generation stimulated by low-dose TF and elevated plasma TFPI activity. PMID: 28569919
  26. this study demonstrated that thrombin and factor Xa cleavage sites on HEV pORF1 are obligatory for HEV replication. PMID: 29321328
  27. increased frequency of factor V Leiden G1691A and prothrombin G20210A mutation in venous thromboembolism patients indicates a significant role of these mutations in the development of VTE in the Kashmiri population PMID: 29454086
  28. The results suggest that an increased plasma thrombin potential is characteristic in patients with clinically stable coronary artery disease, irrespective of previous myocardial infarction history and independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID: 28477533
  29. Enhanced thrombin generation is driven in asthma by a systemic inflammatory state mediated by IL-6 and to a lesser extent TNFalpha, however, not periostin. TNFalpha might contribute to impaired fibrinolysis. PMID: 28429138
  30. Endogenous thrombin potential measured in presence of thrombomodulin is enhanced in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD), supporting that thrombomodulin-protein C pathways is relevant in transient ischaemic attacks from ICAD. PMID: 28505525
  31. PIVKA II, when combined with AFP, may be considered as a screening test for hepatocellular carcinoma due to its high negative predictive value. PMID: 28652441
  32. Thrombin activated platelet releasing exosomes convey miRNA between cells. miRNA-223 regulates the expression of molecules adhesion including ICAM-1. miRNA-223 downregulated ICAM-1 mainly by impacting NF-kappaB and the MAPK pathway. PMID: 28460288
  33. Thrombin binding to extra-cellular loop II (ECLII) of PAR4 is important for its cleavage and activation of PAR4. PMID: 28448853
  34. These findings suggest that contraction-dependent TGF-beta activation could be a mechanism by which thrombin leads to the development of asthmatic airway remodeling. PMID: 29428600
  35. Case Report: Paradoxical bleeding and thrombotic episodes of dysprothrombinaemia due to a homozygous Arg382His mutation I prothrombin. PMID: 27975099
  36. PARP-1 activates prothrombin gene transcription and that the excessive prothrombin gene transcription induces des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) production in DCP-producing hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PMID: 28384634
  37. the routine screening of patients with NAIS for F5 G1691A, F2 G20210A and MTHFR C677T gene mutations might not be justified, and additional prothrombotic mechanisms should be considered. PMID: 27619728
  38. Although rare, the prothrombin Belgrade mutation represents strong thrombophilia with early onset of thrombosis in a large Serbian pedigree PMID: 28075532
  39. There were no significant differences in factor V and factor II genotypes between infertile men and normal controls. PMID: 27815482
  40. histone H4 has a rapid and drastic inhibitory effect on prothrombin activation by prothrombinase that is likely to dominate pathophysiology PMID: 27359051
  41. prothrombotic mutations in factor V Leiden and prothrombin as well as older age are risk factors for venous thrombosis PMID: 27377285
  42. p300 inhibition attenuates both thrombin induced-CCL2 expression and histone H3 and H4 acetylation in HLFs, suggesting that p300 is involved in thrombin-induced CCL2 expression via hyperacetylating histone H3 and H4. PMID: 28407300
  43. p300-dependent histone H3 acetylation and C/EBPbeta-regulated IKKbeta expression contribute to thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 expression in human lung epithelial cells. PMID: 28428115
  44. Meta-analysis of 30 case-control studies showed that the FII 20210G>A polymorphism is associated with arterial ischemic stroke in both pediatric and young adult patients. PMID: 28160964
  45. Thrombin, via PAR1 activation, synergistically augments LPS-induced Human endometrial endothelial cells production of chemokines involved in immune cell recruitment and survival, suggesting a mechanism by which intrauterine abruption and bacterial infection may together be associated with an aggravated uterine inflammatory response. PMID: 27108773
  46. Our findings suggest that hereditary thrombophilia associated with retinal vein occlusion is more likely to be multigenic than caused by any single risk factor. PMID: 28085526
  47. Clinical significance of prothrombin G20210A mutation in homozygous patients. PMID: 28707429
  48. The prevalence of FVL polymorphism (16.3 %) was higher in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) patients than control subjects in this Turkish cohort. We suggest a possible association of FVL mutation with ROP at the end of the study. PMID: 27018927
  49. Data suggest that, for all coagulation proteins tested (prothrombin, factor X, activated factor VII, activated protein C), tighter binding to lipid bilayers (lower Kd) is observed as the proportion of anionic phospholipid increases. These studies were conducted in high-throughput screening using phospholipid bilayers in nanodiscs with multiplexed silicon photonic sensor (micro-ring resonator) array technology. PMID: 28801460
  50. Factor Va reduced by 100-fold the apparent Kd of myosin for factor Xa (Kd approximately 0.48 nM), primarily by reducing koff, indicating formation of a stable ternary complex of myosin:Xa:Va. PMID: 27421960
  51. Over the first 500 s, approximately 92,000 molecules of thrombin were generated per surface TF molecule for the 250-mum-long coating. PMID: 27605669
  52. EPCR occupancy recruits G-protein coupled receptor kinase 5, thereby inducing beta-arrestin-2 biased PAR1 signaling by both APC and thrombin. In PMID: 27561318
  53. Data suggest that subtilisin, a serine protease secreted by non-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus subtilis, induces plasma clotting by proteolytically activating prothrombin with single "non-canonical" cleavage at Ala470-Asn471 bond. PMID: 28684417
  54. An in silico and in vitro approach to elucidate the impact of residues flanking the cleavage scissile bonds of FVIII by thrombin has been presented. PMID: 28683085
  55. These studies clarify the role of PKCdelta in endothelial cell cytoskeleton regulation. PMID: 27442243
  56. Findings indicate functional effects of thrombin allostery and suggest that individual active site-directed thrombin inhibitors uniquely modulate exosite function. PMID: 27305147
  57. Acute Coronary Syndrome patients had an enhanced prothrombotic profile, demonstrated by an increased thrombin generation potential, factor XIa and D-dimer levels. PMID: 27419389
  58. we have found a novel homozygous mutation (p.Tyr510Asp) in the exon 13 of prothrombin gene in a Chinese proband. The mutation is responsible for the prothrombin deficiency reported here. Identification of the prothrombin deficiency in this family allowed mutation-specific prenatal screening. PMID: 28196451
  59. Individuals suffering from relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis had significantly higher prothrombin and factor X levels than healthy donors, whereas levels were unchanged in primary progressive MS and neuromyelitis optica patients. PMID: 27774643
  60. Prothrombin loading of vascular smooth muscle cell-derived exosomes regulates coagulation and calcification. PMID: 28104608
  61. bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell cycle entry by dedifferentiating newt muscle cells. PMID: 28350991
  62. Case Reports: prothrombin Padua 2 induces antithrombin resistance and is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Codon 596 (CGG) of prothrombin is a hot spot for mutations, which constitute a new and relatively frequent cause of inherited thrombophilia. PMID: 27013614
  63. Thrombin cleavage sites were mapped to the Duffy binding-like delta1 (DBLdelta1) domain and interdomains 1 and 2 in the PfEMP1 of the parasite line IT4var19. PMID: 27624125
  64. Furthermore, thrombin treatment of the inflammatory matrix leads to dissolution of HC-HA cable structures and abolishes leukocyte adhesion. These data establish a novel mechanism whereby thrombin cleavage of HC1 regulates the adhesive properties of an inflammatory HA matrix. PMID: 27679489
  65. Prothrombin uses the intramolecular collapse of kringle-1 onto the active site in the closed form to prevent autoactivation. The open-closed equilibrium also defines a new structural framework for the mechanism of activation of prothrombin by prothrombinase. PMID: 27435675
  66. This study demonstrates that impaired EPCR function can be detected by thrombin generation and clot lysis assays on cells expressing thrombomodulin and EPCR. Deficiency in EPCR has procoagulant effects that lead to a delay in clot lysis. PMID: 28219843
  67. Significantly higher serum levels of GP-73 and PIVKA-II were detected in the hepatocellular carcinoma patients than in controls. PMID: 28276727
  68. This study investigated whether type 1 diabetes in children is associated with a hypercoagulable state by performing a global function test of coagulation - the thrombin generation assay. The study found only minor changes of thrombin generation in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes which - in contrast to type 2 diabetes - do not argue for a hypercoagulable state. PMID: 27776253
  69. These findings suggest a higher prevalence of prothrombin G20210A in patients with atrial fibrillation when compared to healthy controls. PMID: 27664389
  70. Trauma is associated with coagulation and increased thrombin generation capacity. Evidence of hypercoagulable state was observed in trauma patients. PMID: 27664391
  71. Boosted thrombin generation shortened the spontaneous plasma clot lysis time. The shortening was apparent when the inhibitors of FXIIIa and TAFIa existed. The shortening by thrombin was masked when tissue plasminogen activator was added to overcome PAI-1. PMID: 27179129
  72. Signaling levels of thrombin can be generated during moderate hemophilia to sufficiently activate platelets to achieve primary hemostasis, even if fibrin formation remains defective. PMID: 27207416
  73. allosteric inhibitor SbO4L targets the glycoprotein Ibalpha-binding and heparin-binding site of thrombin PMID: 26748875
  74. serum level differentiates hepatocellular carcinoma from liver cirrhosis, especially when combined with alpha-fetoprotein PMID: 28296720
  75. G20210A polymorphisms in FII gene were not associated with recurrent miscarriage during the first trimester of pregnancy in Brazilian women. PMID: 27525841
  76. Global prevalence of prothrombin gene mutation G20210A varied from 0 to 15.9% among ethnic groups, with higher rates seen in the thromboembolism affected cohort compared with the unaffected cohort. (Review) PMID: 27058219
  77. The carriage of mutant genotypes of FII 20210 G/A gene is a prognostic factor for rapid liver fibrosis progression in patients with Chronic hepatitis C. PMID: 27636933
  78. investigated the impact of serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) on thrombin generation (TG) in women according to hormonal contraception PMID: 27323874
  79. The prevalence of factor V G1691A, prothrombin G20210A and MTHFR C677T single nucleotide polymorphism among Syrians is 11.5%, 2.5% and 84.5%, respectively. PMID: 26560857
  80. Study showed a significant but not independent association between the G20210A polymorphism of the prothrombin gene and myocardial infraction in the Tunisian population. PMID: 27306359
  81. A family with prothrombin G20210A mutation is reported, including a symptomatic homozygous male, an asymptomatic homozygous female, and their symptomatic heterozygous father and asymptomatic heterozygous mother. PMID: 27383881
  82. In patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma, post-ablation serum des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin is a useful biomarker for predicting survival and recurrence after curative radiofrequency catheter ablation. PMID: 26503910
  83. Data does not support a role for factor V Leiden and G20210A prothrombin gene mutations in the susceptibility to infective endocarditis. PMID: 25711313
  84. Prothrombin kringle-2 expression is is increased in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease. PMID: 26440368
  85. Thrombin is produced from the C-terminal half of prothrombin following its proteolytic activation. The N-terminal half, released as the propiece Fragment 12 (F12), is composed of an N-terminal gamma-carboxyglutamate domain (Gla) followed by two kringles (K1 and K2). The propiece plays essential roles in regulating prothrombin activation and proteinase function. PMID: 27013660
  86. Data suggest that a folded alpha-helix cannot be proteolytically cleaved by thrombin. PMID: 26403495
  87. Data show that cleavage of prothrombin at either Arg271 or Arg320 results in shift from mode 2 to mode 1. PMID: 26365066
  88. The prothrombin (F2) c.20210G>A mutation was present in 3.3% of 400 ischemic stroke patients in Sri Lanka. It was not associated significantly with venous thrombosis compared with arterial thrombosis. PMID: 26522268
  89. thrombin/PAR-1 interaction regulated MCP-1, TF, MCSF and IL-6 production. PMID: 26475502
  90. This review focuses on elucidation of the cerebral thrombin expression, local generation and its role in injury and disease of the central nervous system. [review] PMID: 26761005
  91. The present data showed that FVL, MTHFR polymorphisms also combined with thrombophilic gene mutations have a strong association with recurrent pregnancy loss. PMID: 26135458
  92. Its mutation is associated with primary Budd-Chiari syndrome. PMID: 26238013
  93. the co-localization of thrombin and factor XI and the resultant efficient activation of FXI requires GPIb alpha PMID: 12968031
  94. Prothrombin G20210 A mutation was present in 2% (4 of 196 patients), and it was not found in the healthy controls. PMID: 26315791
  95. the accuracy of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma from various controls was 6.2-9.7% higher than that of alpha-fetoprotein PMID: 27070780
  96. amino acid sequence Leu(480)-Gln(481): 1) is crucial for proper recognition of the fVa-dependent site(s) for fXa within prothrombinase on FII. PMID: 26601957
  97. Data suggest that thrombin can directly activate PAR2 vasorelaxation, signal transduction (stimulating both calcium and MAP kinase responses), and triggering beta-arrestin recruitment (both beta-arrestin 1 and 2). PMID: 26957205
  98. Studies indicate that prothrombin G20210A mutation is significantly associated with cerebral venous thrombosis when compared to healthy controls, although this association is highly dependent on the country of origin. PMID: 27031503
  99. A flexible linker presents the sites of cleavage of prothrombin to factor Xa in different orientations by pivoting the C-terminal kringle-2/protease domain pair on the N-terminal Gla domain/kringle-1 pair anchored to the membrane. PMID: 26763231
  100. AFP remained the best single marker, and the combined use of AFP with prothrombin precursor or DKK-1 had the best diagnostic performance compared to all other possible combinations of the four biomarkers, even in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26986465

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Involvement in disease Factor II deficiency (FA2D); Ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR); Thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1); Pregnancy loss, recurrent, 2 (RPRGL2)
Subcellular Location Secreted, extracellular space
Protein Families Peptidase S1 family
Tissue Specificity Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma.
Database Links

HGNC: 3535

OMIM: 176930

KEGG: hsa:2147

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000308541

UniGene: Hs.655207

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