F2 Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody

Code CSB-RA912740A0HU
Size US$210
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  • IHC image of CSB-RA912740A0HU diluted at 1:100 and staining in paraffin-embedded human liver tissue performed on a Leica BondTM system. After dewaxing and hydration, antigen retrieval was mediated by high pressure in a citrate buffer (pH 6.0). Section was blocked with 10% normal goat serum 30min at RT. Then primary antibody (1% BSA) was incubated at 4℃ overnight. The primary is detected by a Goat anti-rabbit IgG polymer labeled by HRP and visualized using 0.05% DAB.
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Product Details

Uniprot No.
Target Names
F2
Alternative Names
Prothrombin (EC 3.4.21.5) (Coagulation factor II) [Cleaved into: Activation peptide fragment 1, Activation peptide fragment 2, Thrombin light chain, Thrombin heavy chain], F2
Species Reactivity
Human
Immunogen
A synthesized peptide derived from human Prothrombin
Immunogen Species
Homo sapiens (Human)
Conjugate
Non-conjugated
Clonality
Monoclonal
Isotype
Rabbit IgG
Clone No.
9A1
Purification Method
Affinity-chromatography
Concentration
It differs from different batches. Please contact us to confirm it.
Buffer
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.
Form
Liquid
Tested Applications
ELISA, IHC
Recommended Dilution
Application Recommended Dilution
IHC 1:50-1:200
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage
Upon receipt, store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze.
Lead Time
Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 1-3 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time maybe differs from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Description

The F2 recombinant monoclonal antibody can detect human F2 protein in ELISA and IHC applications. It is produced using recombinant DNA technology, wherein the gene coding for the F2 monoclonal antibody is synthesized by sequencing the cDNA of the F2 antibody-producing hybridomas. The hybridomas are generated by fusing myeloma cells with B cells that were isolated from an animal immunized with a synthesized peptide derived from human prothrombin. The synthesized gene is then inserted into a vector and transfected into cells for cultivation. The resulting F2 recombinant monoclonal antibody is purified from the cell culture supernatant through affinity chromatography.

Coagulation factor II (F2), also known as prothrombin, is a protein that plays an essential role in the blood clotting process. In response to injury, prothrombin is converted to thrombin, an enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin. Fibrin forms a mesh-like network that stabilizes the blood clot and stops bleeding. The activation of prothrombin to thrombin is a critical step in the coagulation cascade and requires the presence of other factors and cofactors.

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Target Background

Function
Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.
Gene References into Functions
  1. When endothelial cells are incubated with antiphospholipid antibodies thrombin generation is increased. PMID: 30031291
  2. No significant difference in FVL genotype between patients and controls was observed, whereas high frequencies of PRT G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C mutations in the Hb S patients PMID: 30200836
  3. This study proved that Berberine (BBR) is a direct thrombin inhibitor that has activity in inhibiting thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. BBR may be a potential candidate for the development of safe and effective thrombin-inhibiting drugs PMID: 28276481
  4. Thrombin generation had a limited impact as biomarker of venous thromboembolism. PMID: 30093507
  5. results explain the reduced pro-coagulant activity of the W215A mutant and demonstrate the allosteric connection between Trp215, the sodium-binding loop, and the active site PMID: 29634247
  6. Polymorphisms of F2, PROC, PROZ, and F13A1 Genes are Associated With Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Han Women. PMID: 29363996
  7. the prothrombotic activity of FII is the result of a polymorphism and of a missense mutation, whereas that of FV derives only from a polymorphism. The observation that a clotting factor defect may be associated with both bleeding or venous thrombosis depending on the site of the mutation has caused an extensive reevaluation of the blood clotting mechanism. PMID: 29690772
  8. Findings provide evidence for a relationship between two genes-three mutations-of the cardiovascular disease (CVD genes panel and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). These genotypes include the heterozygous state of the factor II G20210A mutation. PMID: 29974397
  9. digestion of thrombin by P. aeruginosa elastase leads to the release of the C-terminal thrombin-derived peptide FYT21, which inhibits pro-inflammatory responses to several pathogen-associated molecular patterns. PMID: 27181065
  10. Prothrombin gene mutation is rare in Budd-Chiari syndrome patients in India. PMID: 29616413
  11. In HBV-related cirrhosis, the combination of miR-122, AFP and PIVKA-II enables the identification of patients at higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development. PMID: 28650134
  12. Data, including data using network analysis, suggest that angiotensinogen (AGT), mitogen-activated protein kinase-14 (MAPK14), and prothrombin (F2) in placental villous tissues are core factors in early embryonic development; these studies involved proteomics and bioinformatics analysis of altered protein expression in placental villous tissue from early recurrent miscarriage patients in comparison to control tissues. PMID: 29277264
  13. Arg596Gln mutation is a risk factor for Chinese patients with venous thromboembolism due to its moderately decreased clotting activity but strong resistance to antithrombin inhibition. PMID: 29331940
  14. The induction of TG by BXPC3 cells was mainly driven by the TF pathway while TG generation triggered by MCF7 cells was also driven by FXII activation. PMID: 29075790
  15. we were not able to confirm the association between the polymorphisms of f5, f2, and mthfr and pregnancy loss in Bosnian women PMID: 28488549
  16. Platelets were activated in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients, and such activation was at least partially attributed to the thrombin-protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway. PMID: 29141676
  17. The meta-analysis enabled us to underline the importance of DCP in the refinement of the eligibility criteria of hepatocellular cancer (HCC)patients for liver transplant (LT). This information, based on Japanese studies performed in the setting of living-donor LT only, needs further validation in the Western world both in the setting of post-mortem and living-donor LT. PMID: 28561879
  18. HCC [hepatocellular carcinoma] patients who are sero-positive for DCP [Des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin] and sero-negative for AFP[Alpha-fetoprotein] have significantly higher levels of serum ALT[alanine aminotransferase]; serum ALT levels may be of diagnostic importance in AFP-negative, HBV-related HCC [hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma] patients. PMID: 29192630
  19. Evaluation of initial thrombin generation is useful to distinguish between beneficial coagulation activation and hazardous haemostatic alteration, and to predict multiorgan dysfunction development and poor outcome in septic patients. PMID: 28166112
  20. Prothrombin showed statistically significant differences between the groups of septic and non-septic burn patients. PMID: 28454850
  21. The data indicate that prothrombin Arg596 missense mutations lead to antithrombin (AT) and thrombomodulin (TM) resistance in the variant thrombins and suggest that prothrombin Arg596 is important for AT- and TM-mediated anticoagulation. PMID: 27604259
  22. application of electrical stimulus modifies the molecular interactions within the complex and consequently, electrical field can be used to modulate the association between the thrombin and its aptamer. PMID: 27874042
  23. The G20210A prothrombin mutation carriers after venous thromboembolism have unfavourable fibrin clot characteristics, including lower permeability and impaired lysis compared with non-carriers. Rivaroxaban treatment cannot abolish more prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype observed in prothrombin mutation carriers following VTE. PMID: 28771277
  24. prothrombin-20210-mutations are playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of cerebral sinus vein thrombosis, but not in arterial ischemic stroke PMID: 28869458
  25. Patients with early onset preeclampsia are characterised by an attenuated coagulation response characterised by reduced thrombin generation stimulated by low-dose TF and elevated plasma TFPI activity. PMID: 28569919
  26. this study demonstrated that thrombin and factor Xa cleavage sites on HEV pORF1 are obligatory for HEV replication. PMID: 29321328
  27. increased frequency of factor V Leiden G1691A and prothrombin G20210A mutation in venous thromboembolism patients indicates a significant role of these mutations in the development of VTE in the Kashmiri population PMID: 29454086
  28. The results suggest that an increased plasma thrombin potential is characteristic in patients with clinically stable coronary artery disease, irrespective of previous myocardial infarction history and independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID: 28477533
  29. Enhanced thrombin generation is driven in asthma by a systemic inflammatory state mediated by IL-6 and to a lesser extent TNFalpha, however, not periostin. TNFalpha might contribute to impaired fibrinolysis. PMID: 28429138
  30. Endogenous thrombin potential measured in presence of thrombomodulin is enhanced in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD), supporting that thrombomodulin-protein C pathways is relevant in transient ischaemic attacks from ICAD. PMID: 28505525
  31. PIVKA II, when combined with AFP, may be considered as a screening test for hepatocellular carcinoma due to its high negative predictive value. PMID: 28652441
  32. Thrombin activated platelet releasing exosomes convey miRNA between cells. miRNA-223 regulates the expression of molecules adhesion including ICAM-1. miRNA-223 downregulated ICAM-1 mainly by impacting NF-kappaB and the MAPK pathway. PMID: 28460288
  33. Thrombin binding to extra-cellular loop II (ECLII) of PAR4 is important for its cleavage and activation of PAR4. PMID: 28448853
  34. These findings suggest that contraction-dependent TGF-beta activation could be a mechanism by which thrombin leads to the development of asthmatic airway remodeling. PMID: 29428600
  35. Case Report: Paradoxical bleeding and thrombotic episodes of dysprothrombinaemia due to a homozygous Arg382His mutation I prothrombin. PMID: 27975099
  36. PARP-1 activates prothrombin gene transcription and that the excessive prothrombin gene transcription induces des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) production in DCP-producing hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PMID: 28384634
  37. the routine screening of patients with NAIS for F5 G1691A, F2 G20210A and MTHFR C677T gene mutations might not be justified, and additional prothrombotic mechanisms should be considered. PMID: 27619728
  38. Although rare, the prothrombin Belgrade mutation represents strong thrombophilia with early onset of thrombosis in a large Serbian pedigree PMID: 28075532
  39. There were no significant differences in factor V and factor II genotypes between infertile men and normal controls. PMID: 27815482
  40. histone H4 has a rapid and drastic inhibitory effect on prothrombin activation by prothrombinase that is likely to dominate pathophysiology PMID: 27359051
  41. prothrombotic mutations in factor V Leiden and prothrombin as well as older age are risk factors for venous thrombosis PMID: 27377285
  42. p300 inhibition attenuates both thrombin induced-CCL2 expression and histone H3 and H4 acetylation in HLFs, suggesting that p300 is involved in thrombin-induced CCL2 expression via hyperacetylating histone H3 and H4. PMID: 28407300
  43. p300-dependent histone H3 acetylation and C/EBPbeta-regulated IKKbeta expression contribute to thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 expression in human lung epithelial cells. PMID: 28428115
  44. Meta-analysis of 30 case-control studies showed that the FII 20210G>A polymorphism is associated with arterial ischemic stroke in both pediatric and young adult patients. PMID: 28160964
  45. Thrombin, via PAR1 activation, synergistically augments LPS-induced Human endometrial endothelial cells production of chemokines involved in immune cell recruitment and survival, suggesting a mechanism by which intrauterine abruption and bacterial infection may together be associated with an aggravated uterine inflammatory response. PMID: 27108773
  46. Our findings suggest that hereditary thrombophilia associated with retinal vein occlusion is more likely to be multigenic than caused by any single risk factor. PMID: 28085526
  47. Clinical significance of prothrombin G20210A mutation in homozygous patients. PMID: 28707429
  48. The prevalence of FVL polymorphism (16.3 %) was higher in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) patients than control subjects in this Turkish cohort. We suggest a possible association of FVL mutation with ROP at the end of the study. PMID: 27018927
  49. Data suggest that, for all coagulation proteins tested (prothrombin, factor X, activated factor VII, activated protein C), tighter binding to lipid bilayers (lower Kd) is observed as the proportion of anionic phospholipid increases. These studies were conducted in high-throughput screening using phospholipid bilayers in nanodiscs with multiplexed silicon photonic sensor (micro-ring resonator) array technology. PMID: 28801460
  50. Factor Va reduced by 100-fold the apparent Kd of myosin for factor Xa (Kd approximately 0.48 nM), primarily by reducing koff, indicating formation of a stable ternary complex of myosin:Xa:Va. PMID: 27421960

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Involvement in disease
Factor II deficiency (FA2D); Ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR); Thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1); Pregnancy loss, recurrent, 2 (RPRGL2)
Subcellular Location
Secreted, extracellular space.
Protein Families
Peptidase S1 family
Tissue Specificity
Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma.
Database Links

HGNC: 3535

OMIM: 176930

KEGG: hsa:2147

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000308541

UniGene: Hs.655207

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