Rat galanin,GAL ELISA Kit

Code CSB-E09908r
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
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Trial Size 24T ELISA Kit Trial Size (Only USD$150/ kit)
* The sample kit cost can be deducted from your subsequent orders of 96T full size kits of the same analyte at 1/5 per kit, until depleted in 6 months. Apply now

Product Details

Target Name
galanin prepropeptide
Alternative Names
Gal ELISA Kit; Galn ELISA Kit; Galanin peptides [Cleaved into: Galanin; Galanin message-associated peptide ELISA Kit; GMAP)] ELISA Kit
Uniprot No.
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Sample Types
serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range
4.7 pg/mL-300 pg/mL
1.17 pg/mL
Assay Time
Sample Volume
Detection Wavelength
450 nm
Research Area
Assay Principle
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of rat GAL in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
1:1Average %98
Range %94-105
1:2Average %100
Range %95-110
1:4Average %86
Range %82-90
1:8Average %94
Range %90-100
The recovery of rat GAL spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 9187-99
EDTA plasma (n=4)9691-103
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
3002.602 2.551 2.577 2.453
1501.852 1.892 1.872 1.748
751.314 1.325 1.320 1.196
37.50.869 0.845 0.857 0.733
18.750.511 0.536 0.524 0.400
9.40.306 0.288 0.297 0.173
4.70.232 0.219 0.226 0.102
00.127 0.121 0.124
and FAQs
Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time
3-5 working days after you place the order, and it takes another 3-5 days for delivery via DHL or FedEx

This Rat GAL ELISA Kit was designed for the quantitative measurement of Rat GAL protein in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. It is a Sandwich ELISA kit, its detection range is 4.7 pg/mL-300 pg/mL and the sensitivity is 1.17 pg/mL.

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Target Background

(From Uniprot)
Endocrine hormone of the central and peripheral nervous systems that binds and activates the G protein-coupled receptors GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. This small neuropeptide may regulate diverse physiologic functions including contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, growth hormone and insulin release and adrenal secretion.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Both the galanin and galanin receptor 2 mRNA expression and content increased significantly in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in rats with mononeuropathy than that in normal rats. PMID: 28378856
  2. PG early treatment prevented Y1R upregulation and resulted in lower NPY, Y2R and GalR1 mRNA levels. In the chronic phase, injured rats showed well-established mechanical and cold allodynia and significant increases in galanin, NPY, GalR1 and Y1R mRNAs, while maintaining reduced GalR2 expression. Animals receiving PG treatment showed basal expression levels of galanin, NPY, GalR1 and Y1R, and reduced Y2R mRNA levels PMID: 28062253
  3. UVB irradiation induced a significant reduction of the proportion of galanin positive DRG neurons for all time points, except at 12h.UVB irradiation induced increased substance P immunoreactivity in the dorsal part of the spinal cord 48h after irradiation. UVB irradiation also induced c-fos immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn and the area around the central canal 24 and 48h after exposure PMID: 27923581
  4. Galanin neurons in the preoptic area of mother rats are innervated by an excitatory neuronal pathway that conveys suckling-related information. In turn, they can be topographically and neurochemically divided into two distinct cell groups, of which only one is affected by prolactin. PMID: 27300187
  5. The differential regulation (dysregulation) of the neuropeptide Gal in brain tissues may contribute to anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder development. PMID: 27907151
  6. these data suggest that targeting galanin signaling may be effective for the maintenance of biliary mass during cholestatic liver diseases. PMID: 28196718
  7. These findings suggest a role for the galanin system in the endogenous response to mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury PMID: 26928087
  8. GAL in the DMH activates two independent descending facilitatory pathways: (i) one relays in the DRt and (ii) the other one involves 5-HT neurones acting on spinal 5HT3Rs PMID: 26565961
  9. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and galanin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly higher after feeding in the control but not in the daidzein group, suggesting that daidzein attenuated the postprandial increase in NPY and galanin expression PMID: 25952775
  10. Galanin released by cancer induces neuritogenesis, facilitating perineural invasion. PMID: 25917569
  11. Study shows that LIF-treated postmitotic oligodendrocytes secrete a number of neuropeptides, in particular galanin, at the mRNA and peptide level, and galanin itself was shown to be a survival factor for oligodendrocytes PMID: 25639936
  12. Findings from the present study suggest that paraventricular nucleus GAL or chronic intake of a high-fat diet can decrease phosphorylated CREB in the nucleus accumbens; implications of these findings may help to explain the lack of opiate-like withdrawal that has been reported in response to overeating a high-fat diet. PMID: 23747305
  13. Galanin can be regarded as an immunomodulatory peptide as it can sensitize polymorphonuclear neutrophils towards pro-inflammatory cytokines in humans and mice. PMID: 25545502
  14. Galanin and its fragment can play a significant role in regulation of glucose metabolic homeostasis in cardiac muscle and galanin is an important hormone relative to diabetic heart. PMID: 25445608
  15. Insulin detemir decreased food intake in type 2 diabetic rats, which led to reduced weight gain likely due to down-regulation of hypothalamic NPY and galanin. PMID: 25197671
  16. Galanin mRNA and protein levels increase significantly in hippocampus after amyloid peptide (Abeta) administration. PMID: 23687905
  17. The present findings suggest that the pharynx is one of main targets of GAL-containing nerves in the upper digestive and respiratory systems. PMID: 23731834
  18. Alcohol drinking rats with high compared to low activity exhibited significantly greater expression of galanin (and enkephalin) in the paraventricular nucleus. PMID: 22725682
  19. Gal, via activation of GalR1 and/or GalR2, may have neuroprotective effects in reducing neuropathic pain behaviors and improving nerve regeneration after nerve injury. PMID: 22624057
  20. Galanin attenuated diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID: 22306246
  21. Galanin modulates stress-induced short- and long-term activities, serving as a drug target in stress-related behavioral conditions. PMID: 21763401
  22. Results show that most dynorphin-expressing cells in the superficial dorsal horn are inhibitory interneurons, and that they largely correspond to the population that is defined by the presence of galanin. PMID: 21958458
  23. Transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery altered galanin gene expression in rat brain supportting the notion that galanin may play a role in the response of the central nervous system to injury. PMID: 22197078
  24. Plasma galanin levels increase after swimming training. Data suggest endogenous galanin accelerates GLUT4 translocation to plasma membranes in white adipocytes to reach a new equilibrium between exocytosis and endocytosis in type 2 diabetes. PMID: 22079346
  25. Fibroblast-like cells in the skin produced and released galanin during granulation tissue formation, and that it stimulated angiogenesis. PMID: 21894515
  26. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the regulatory role of galanin on acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rat dorsal and ventral hippocampus PMID: 21958860
  27. Data demonstrate three populations of preprogalanin mRNA-expressing neurons in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata of the adult, male Sprague-Dawley rat PMID: 21800306
  28. testosterone regulates GAL secretion in male animals. PMID: 21975846
  29. Galanin, NPY, nNOS and parvalbumin can be used to define four distinct neurochemical populations of inhibitory interneurons. PMID: 21569622
  30. Expression of galanin is increased in the hippocampus of rats predicted to consume higher levels of ethanol. PMID: 20692550
  31. Intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the locus coeruleus only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running. PMID: 20850488
  32. results demonstrate that galanin induces antinociceptive effects in the central nucleus of amygdala of rats, and both mu- and delta-opioid receptors are involved in the galanin-induced antinociception PMID: 20051236
  33. is rapidly up-regulated 120-fold after peripheral nerve section PMID: 11712539
  34. The action of chimeric peptides on the smooth muscle of the rat gastrointestinal tract depended not only on the myogenic interaction of those peptides with galanin binding sites, but also on the activation of tachykinin receptors PMID: 11782668
  35. excitatory actions on cholinergic neurons, galanin may in fact play a compensatory role by augmenting the release of acetylcholine from remaining cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 11826038
  36. Galanin, probably acting through GalR1 and GalR3, exerts antiproliferative & proapoptotic effects on immature rat thymocytes. It is likely that this peptide plays a role in the autocrine/paracrine functional regulation of immune system in the rat. PMID: 12119556
  37. Cultured female rat pituitary cells were treated with 10 nM 1,17 beta-estradiol or triiodothyronine. E2 treatment for 3 days resulted in a 7-fold increase in galanin mRNA. In contrast, T(3) treatment reduced the mRNA levels of galanin to 30% of control. PMID: 12147214
  38. findings are the first demonstration that galanin impairs performance on an emotional memory task and support the hypothesis that galanin-induced deficits are specific to more difficult cognitive tasks PMID: 12177231
  39. expression of peptide and transcript levels of the neurotrophic peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), galanin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were examined in sympathetic neurons of rat superior cervical ganglion PMID: 12409220
  40. Immunotoxic lesions produced an ipsilateral reduction in cholinergic basal forebrain cells. Increased numbers of galanin immunoreactive fibers occurred in and adjacent to the lesion in most rats; this effect persisted for 6 months. PMID: 12435417
  41. The galanin-ergic control of Vasopressin secretion from neurohypophyseal tissue in rats can occur independently of the hypothalamus, at the level of the posterior pituitary. PMID: 12468105
  42. Ability of galanin to directly stimulate LH secretion and to enhance GnRH-stimulated LH secretion in male rats. PMID: 12533397
  43. The major part of the granules containing vasopressin, either alone or in association with galanin, is found in neurohypophyseal nerve endings. PMID: 12814355
  44. GALP or galanin activated several brain regions in common, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. PMID: 12933672
  45. upregulation of galanin in an individual neuron is preceded by downregulation of its capsaicin sensitivity both in NGF-dependent peptidergic and in GDNF-dependent non-peptidergic neurons, indicating a change in phenotype. PMID: 12955388
  46. galanin has an antinociceptive role in the ARC of intact rats and rats with inflammation. PMID: 14581121
  47. Galanin expression is implicated in aspects of cartilage growth plate physiology and fracture repair, possibly acting in an autocrine/paracrine fashion via GALR1. PMID: 14623054
  48. Galanin is involved in the response to inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and might play a role in the regulation of inflammation and nociception. PMID: 14760801
  49. The dense innervation of thyrotropin-releasing neurons in all subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus by galanin-containing axons indicates that galanin may be involved in the central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. PMID: 14988032
  50. galanin-ergic neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate may be involved in the functional modulation of descending pain modulation system following peripheral nerve injury PMID: 15342143

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Subcellular Location
Protein Families
Galanin family
Database Links
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