Recombinant Human EPO-alpha/Fc Chimera protein(EPOFc) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP002091HU
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Product Details

Purity >98% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The Specific Activity was measured by the stimulation of reticulocyte production in normocyth-aemic mice and is no less than 5.0 × 10^5 IU/mg.
Target Names EPO
Uniprot No. P01588
Research Area Cancer
Alternative Names EPOErythropoietin; Epoetin
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source Mammalian cell
Expression Region 28-193aa
Complete Sequence APPRLICDSRVLERYLLEAKEAENITTGCAEHCSLNENITVPDTKVNFYAWKRMEVGQQAVEVWQGLALLSEAVLRGQALLVNSSQPWEPLQLHVDKAVSGLRSLTTLLRALGAQKEAISPPDAASAAPLRTITADTFRKLFRVYSNFLRGKLKLYTGEACRTGDR+IEGRMDEPKSSDKTHTCPPCPAPEFEGAPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPTPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
Mol. Weight 45.3 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info C-terminal FC-tagged
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2μm filtered sodium citrate buffer (1 liter of ddH2O containing 5.9 g of sodium citrate, 5.8 g of sodium chloride and 0.06 g of citric acid)
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Q&A and Customer Reviews

 Q&A
Q:

I have a technical question regarding Recombinant Human EPO-alpha/Fc Chimera protein (EPOFc) (Active) (CSB-AP002091HU)
Could you please let me know how precisely the amount of protein in the respective vials is measured? How does your lab quantify the amount of protein?

A:
Thanks for your inquiry.
Different protein quantification methods will have different results. Sometimes the difference in the results of quantitative methods is significant. We use the BCA method to quantify.

Target Data

Function Hormone involved in the regulation of erythrocyte proliferation and differentiation and the maintenance of a physiological level of circulating erythrocyte mass. Binds to EPOR leading to EPOR dimerization and JAK2 activation thereby activating specific downstream effectors, including STAT1 and STAT3.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Increases in plasma erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor activation are mechanisms implicated in the increase of plasma FGF23 in acute kidney injury. PMID: 29395333
  2. the implication of alpha-7-nAChR-JAK-2/STAT-3-Nrf-2 signaling cascade in the radiomitigative potential of EPO against ARS PMID: 29220591
  3. Pro-inflammatory proteins S100A9 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha suppress erythropoietin elaboration in myelodysplastic syndromes PMID: 28983059
  4. EPO levels in the coronary artery disease (CAD) group were higher than those in the non-CAD group. The correlation between red cell distribution width and EPO levels was statistically significant among CAD patients. PMID: 28885393
  5. CD133(+) cells contributed to the local production of erythropoietin, as observed by detection of circulating human erythropoietin. CD133(+) cells appear therefore an effective source for cell repair, able to restore renal functions, including erythropoietin release, and to limit long term maldifferentiation and fibrosis. PMID: 27853265
  6. Circulating anti-EPO are detected in a significant proportion of treatment-naive HCV-infected patients and are independently associated with anemia, suggesting a further implication of autoimmunity in the pathophysiology of HCV-related anemia. PMID: 28603097
  7. the T allele of SNP rs60684937 located at 67,419,130 bp on chromosome 17 was associated with increased plasma EPO and a relatively increased expression of a non-coding transcript of PRKAR1A in sickle cell disease patients PMID: 28173069
  8. study describes a gain-of-function variant in EPO in an extended kindred with familial erythrocytosis, including 10 affected family members in four generations; this mutation, a single-nucleotide deletion (c.32delG), introduces a frameshift in exon 2 PMID: 29514032
  9. Here, using zebrafish, murine, and human models, the authors show that erythropoietin (EPO) signaling, together with the GATA1 transcriptional target, AKAP10, regulates heme biosynthesis during erythropoiesis at the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID: 28553927
  10. Reduction in central venous blood pressure prompts an increase in plasma EPO concentration independent of hemoconcentration and hence suggests CVP per se as an acute regulator of EPO synthesis PMID: 27169519
  11. EPO (7q22) and SEC-61(7p11) emerged as new candidate genes susceptible to genetic losses with 57.7% deletions identified in regions on chromosome 7. PMID: 27282568
  12. The current controversy may derive from a context-dependent mode of action of Epo, namely opposite skeletal actions during bone regeneration and steady-state bone remodeling. PMID: 26822707
  13. High EPO expression is associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma. PMID: 26919105
  14. age 3 plasma levels of EPO were found related to childhood asthma PMID: 27434124
  15. EPO induces an EMT-like process in mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells PMID: 28247960
  16. these results suggested that quercetin's cytoprotective effects in HepG2 cells are mediated via EPO production. PMID: 29080630
  17. Serum Epo and VEGF may be markers of severity of hypoxia-ischaemia and brain injury as they are closely related to hypoxic exposure. PMID: 27902983
  18. CIS interacted with phosphorylated EpoR at Y401, which was critical for the activation of STAT5 and ERK. PMID: 28038963
  19. EPO dependent regulation pathway of FGF23 gene expression PMID: 29073196
  20. Fetal plasma EPO concentrations are selectively increased in monochorionic twin pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction. PMID: 27161360
  21. this study shows that EPO is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury PMID: 27266727
  22. Erythropoietin is superior to the standard prognostic scores in predicting 28-day mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. PMID: 27981303
  23. EPO levels were also found correlated positively with heme, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IP-10 and MCP-1 during cerebral malaria. PMID: 27441662
  24. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy in a Chinese Han population. PMID: 27190272
  25. Pharmacokinetic animal studies revealed strongly 15.6-fold plasma half-life extension for the PASylated EPO (83.16 +/- 13.28 h) in comparison to epoetin alpha (8.5 +/- 2.4 h) and darbepoetin alpha (25.3 +/- 2.2h). PMID: 28168382
  26. Secreted MIR122 reached the kidney and reduced expression of erythropoietin, contributing to inflammation-induced anemia. PMID: 27477940
  27. this paper shows that Epo could directly down-regulate pro-inflammatory T cell responses without affecting T cell activation status PMID: 27208431
  28. findings suggest that erythropoietin levels in anemia of unknown etiology, although elevated, remain inappropriately low, particularly when compared with other forms of anemia. This suggests a relative erythropoietin deficiency or a blunted erythroid cell response. PMID: 26747131
  29. Plasma IGFBP-1 was significantly associated with plasma EPO concentration in acute kidney injury, suggesting an unknown mechanism related to systemic stress conditions for EPO regulation in AKI. PMID: 26479890
  30. Our results suggest that EPO/EPOR pathway promotes gastric cancer formation, proliferation, migration, and decreases apoptosis PMID: 27086036
  31. These results suggest that both EpoR-positive and EpoR-negative cancer cells could be regulated by exogenous Epo. However, an increased response to erythropoietin was observed in the EpoR-positive cells. Thus, erythropoietin increases the risk of tumor progression in colon cancer and should not be used to treat anemia in this type of cancer. PMID: 27543111
  32. Overexpression of EPO is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 27468719
  33. EPO may play an important role in stem cell mobilization through up regulating HGF in mesenchymal stem cells and inducing migration of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells PMID: 27865586
  34. A review of contemporary aspects of EPO relating to chronic liver disease. [review] PMID: 26919118
  35. Hepatic EPO synthesis is not enhanced in cirrhosis. PMID: 26924722
  36. Conclusion: Anemia in cancers was not because of inadequate Epo or Fe levels, but because of improper Epo response. PMID: 26838000
  37. In multivariate survival analysis, age, Epo and EpoR were independent prognostic factors related to overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26097591
  38. Suggest that hypoxia prevents EPO suppression, and exaggerates the plasma volume reduction induced by bed rest. PMID: 27081163
  39. Inadequate erythropoietin response may partly explain anemia in anorexia nervosa. PMID: 26049959
  40. these findings suggest that TGF-beta suppression and EPO stimulation promote erythropoiesis of CD34(+)CD31(+) progenitor cells derived from hPSCs. PMID: 26012423
  41. Our findings have important potential clinical implications, indicating that EPO supplementation in rhabdomyosarcoma patients may have the unwanted side effect of tumor progression. PMID: 26412593
  42. suggest that rhEPO regulates apoptosis-related genes and affects apoptosis in the hippocampus of aging rats by upregulating SIRT. PMID: 26261574
  43. Higher levels of endogenous erythropoietin are associated with incident heart failure in older adults. PMID: 26721912
  44. Erythropoietin protects mouse renal tubular basement membrane by promoting bone marrow cells to generate and secrete miR-144, which, in turn, inhibits activation of the tPA/MMP9-mediated proteolytic network. PMID: 26469975
  45. The review describes the induction of erythropoietin gene expression in liver, reproouctive and hemopoietic systems during hypoxia or a state of proliferation. PMID: 26995951
  46. Our data suggest that rs507392 and rs551238 in the erythropoietin gene probably act to lessen the risk for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a Chinese cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PMID: 25675872
  47. Data suggest maternal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D during mid-pregnancy and at delivery is inversely related to serum EPO; an indirect relation observed between circulating vitamin D and circulating hemoglobin is at least partly mediated by EPO. PMID: 26447159
  48. This review gleans these different strategies and highlights the leading molecular recognition elements that have potential roles in rHuEPO doping detection. PMID: 25058943
  49. The addition of salt (even low concentrations of the strong chaotrope salt guanidinium hydrochloride) also exponentially decreased the initial rate of soluble erythropoietin non-native aggregation at 37 degrees C storage PMID: 25628168
  50. In very preterm infants, whether elevated perinatal erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations are associated with increased risks of indicators of brain damage, was determined. PMID: 25793991
  51. The EPO genotype in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with anemia and may help to identify those at risk. PMID: 25656761
  52. Novel findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms of EPO contribute to the progression and development of bladder tumors. PMID: 25175278
  53. EPO is produced in most of conventional uterine leiomyomas and evidence supports a model in which EPO accelerates tumor growth, possibly by inducing vessel maturity. PMID: 25724399
  54. Erythropoietin dampens injury-induced microglial motility. PMID: 25966953
  55. in very preterm newborns, circulating levels of endogenous erythropoietin vary significantly with circulating levels of inflammation-related proteins. PMID: 25022958
  56. Elevated erythropoietin and cytokines levels are related to impaired reticulocyte maturation in beta-thalassemic patients. PMID: 25477265
  57. basic mechanisms for hypoxia-inducible factor induction of EPO expression, and within erythroid progenitors EPOR engagement of canonical Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (JAK2/STAT5) PMID: 25887776
  58. High erythropoietin stimulates osteoclast precursors and induces bone loss. PMID: 25630969
  59. Higher Epo levels were seen in patients receiving hydroxyurea (HU), but no correlation with oxygenation, hemolysis, renal function, or inflammation was observed PMID: 25405915
  60. the Epo gene changes dramatically during development--{REVIEW} PMID: 25786542
  61. Cbl negatively regulates EPO signaling mainly through the proteasome-dependent degradation of Src, and the E3 ligase activity of Cbl and its tyrosine phosphorylation are regulated by Src but not Jak2. PMID: 25084697
  62. Suggest that the new reporter gene assay can be a viable supplement to the traditional reticulocyte assay and employed in potency determination of rHuEPO pharmaceutical products. PMID: 25194345
  63. Amniotic fluid erythropoietin concentration is elevated in growth-restricted fetuses and could potentially be used for distinction between growth restricted and constitutionally small fetuses. PMID: 24144060
  64. Studies indicate that the signalling mediated by EPO is required for normal brain development. PMID: 24896364
  65. The main aim of this study was to investigate the dose-response relationship and determine the lowest effective dose of Erythropoietin(EPO) that reliably increases the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). PMID: 24052411
  66. AKT activation upregulates GATA-1 and FOXO3 transcriptional pathways with resulting inhibition of apoptosis, modulation of cell cycle, and enhanced maturation of erythroid cells. PMID: 24677652
  67. EPO rs1617640 G homozygotes showed a significantly lower rise of serum EPO level over time than T allele carriers in hepatitis C patients undergoing antiviral therapy. PMID: 25227310
  68. erythropoietin (EPO T --> G) and alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3 R577X) polymorphisms have roles in nutrigenomic effects on athletes' performance, specifically antioxidant supplementation based on pequi oil PMID: 24504226
  69. Data indicate that both classical and nonclassical pathway secretion vectors could express human IL-1beta in HepG2 cells, but erythropoietin(EPO) signal-peptide mediated classical pathway secreted much higher mature IL-1beta than that of nonclassical pathway. PMID: 24796745
  70. Serum EPO was significantly higher in infants living at high altitude compared to low altitude residents. PMID: 23401418
  71. Studied the soluble overexpression of active rhEpo (recombinant erythropoietin) with various protein tags in E. coli, and found out that several tags increased the solubility of rhEpo. PMID: 24412408
  72. Findings suggest that elevated hepcidin levels and inadequate erythropoietin response are frequent in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays the major role for the development of anemia. PMID: 23647063
  73. The EPO concentration in the aqueous humor of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) and non-FAP patients, with and without glaucoma, was evaluated. PMID: 25018619
  74. Telomere shortening caused by long term inhibition of the enzyme abolished the effect of EPO, suggesting that EPO effects on cancer cells are related to telomere dynamics. PMID: 24907467
  75. Cardioprotective potentials of rhEpo are reviewed in this article by focusing on clinical applicability. PMID: 24377712
  76. The progressive increase of EPO and EpoR mRNA can already be observed during the fibrotic-cirrhotic development with a peak of expression rising at tumor formation. PMID: 23052842
  77. novel roles of autocrine/paracrine EPO-mediated cell signaling in regulating migration and invasion potential and stemness-like properties of breast cancer cells. PMID: 24100272
  78. investigated the mechanism of erythropoietin production by hypoxia in vitro using liver hepatocell (HepG2) cell line PMID: 24832733
  79. Data indicate that the frequency of the -1125GG genotype in erythropoietin (EPO) was significantly lower in Graves' disease (GD) and suggest the -1125GG genotype of the EPO gene may be protective against the development of GD. PMID: 24177168
  80. we demonstrated distribution of serum EPO levels in lower risk MDS cases with anemia, increasing levels of EPO levels according to progression of anemia. PMID: 24307517
  81. Erythropoietin has a role in promoting the proliferation, survival and maturation of erythroblasts. PMID: 23894012
  82. Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR), frequently overexpressed in breast cancer, are true targets of miR-125b. PMID: 24165569
  83. Report frequency of EPO SNPs in diabetic nephropathy. PMID: 24821155
  84. These findings provide a framework for understanding that production of high levels of EPO induced by hypoxia also involves regulation at the translational level. PMID: 24647661
  85. Serum-EPO and the ratio between serum-EPO predicted and that observed declined progressively over time during scuba diving. PMID: 23670359
  86. rHuEpo increased multiple-myeloma bone-marrow-derived macrophage-mediated production of pro-angiogenic factors. The Epo/Epo-R pathway may regulate the multiple myeloma angiogenic response. PMID: 23881169
  87. Measurement of amniotic erythropoietin level combined with amniotic troponin-T level is effective for determining the severity of fetal hypoxia. PMID: 23525596
  88. Our data indicates that drug delivery systems should be optimized to deliver at least 36 mU/ml EPO into the eye since this dose was effective for the treatment of a progressive retinal degeneration. PMID: 23773177
  89. An increased urinary EPO level in the early postnatal period is significantly associated with kidney and brain injury in critically ill neonates. PMID: 23817218
  90. Data indicate that expressions of PTHrP, EPO, and VEGF were respectively related to advanced stage of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). PMID: 23780896
  91. Authors discussed:role and regulation of erythropoietin secretion, its extra-hematologic effect,concentration in normal and complicated pregnancy, placental secretion, its effect on placental function, its role in evaluation of fetal well-being. PMID: 24296452
  92. Circulatory EPO may be a useful biomarker for coronary collateral development and potential target for therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with chronic total occlusion PMID: 23672497
  93. Dexamethasone abolished the rise in EPO induced by 8 h of hypoxia. PMID: 23393065
  94. Pretreatment with recombinant human erythropoietin elicited potent glomerular protection against cardiopulmonary bypass, partly due to downregulation of glomerular TRPC6-NFATc1 pathway. PMID: 23535151
  95. Data show that erythropoietin levels in homozygous Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) H191D individuals are higher than in VHL R200W patients. PMID: 23403324
  96. Recombinant human EPO reduces astrocytic swelling created by oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation. PMID: 23142737
  97. these results suggest that it is the renal CD133(+) progenitor cells that synthesize and release erythropoietin under hypoxia, via the prolyl hydroxylase-HIF-2alpha axis, in the human kidney. PMID: 23661806
  98. Indoxyl sulfate negatively regulates endothelial effects of erythropoietin through suppression of Akt phosphorylation. PMID: 23337206
  99. the EPO-EPOR system may play a role in glucose metabolism within adipocytes. PMID: 23313788
  100. ADMA levels significantly increased during the observation time in EPO, EPO+recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (PA) and placebo groups in an EPO stroke trial. PMID: 23788583

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Involvement in disease Microvascular complications of diabetes 2 (MVCD2)
Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families EPO/TPO family
Tissue Specificity Produced by kidney or liver of adult mammals and by liver of fetal or neonatal mammals.
Database Links

HGNC: 3415

OMIM: 133170

KEGG: hsa:2056

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000252723

UniGene: Hs.2303

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