Human Insulin,INS ELISA Kit

Instructions
Code CSB-E05069h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
Trial Size 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Description

The human insulin/INS ELISA kit is used to detect and quantify the concentrations of INS in serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, and tissue homogenates. This kit exclusively recognizes human INS proteins. It adopts a sandwich ELISA technique in which an INS antibody/INS/biotinylated INS complex is formed and develops color reaction after the addition of TMB substrate solution. The intensity of the color is positively relevant to the levels of INS in the sample. This ELISA kit has been confirmed to have high sensitivity, strong specificity, premium precision, and lot-to-lot consistency. See the instructions for more details.

Insulin/INS is the predominant anabolic hormone, promoting carbon energy deposition in the body. Its secretion from beta cells is induced by glucose and Glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1). It is a critical regulator of glucose metabolism, playing a hypoglycaemic effect. Insulin-glucagon coordination is essential for glucose homeostasis. Insulin resistance and loss of beta-cell function are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Target Name insulin
Alternative Names IDDM 2 ELISA Kit; IDDM2 ELISA Kit; ILPR ELISA Kit; ins ELISA Kit; INS_HUMAN ELISA Kit; Insulin A chain ELISA Kit; IRDN ELISA Kit; MODY10 ELISA Kit; Proinsulin ELISA Kit
Abbreviation INS
Uniprot No. P01308
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 10 μIU/mL-100 μIU/mL
Sensitivity 2 μIU/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Metabolism
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Materials provided
  • An assay plate --- The 96-well plate is composed of 12 x 8 strip plates and can be dismountable.
  • Six bottles of lyophilized standard --- Reconstitute one bottle of the standard with sample diluent at dilution series and draw the standard curve.
  • Biotin-antibody (100 x concentrate) 1 x 120 μl --- Act as the detection antibody and need to be diluted before use.
  • HRP-avidin (100 x concentrate) 1 x 6 ml--- Catalyze the TMB substrate for color development and need to be diluted before use.
  • Biotin-antibody Diluent 1 x 15 ml --- Dilute the Biotin-antibody.
  • HRP-avidin Diluent 1 x 15 ml --- Dilute the HRP-avidin.
  • Sample Diluent 1 x 50 ml --- Reconstitute the standard and dilute the sample to an appropriate concentration.
  • Wash Buffer (20 x concentrate) 1 x 15 ml --- Wash away the unbound solution and non-specific substances.
  • Substrate A 1 x 7 ml --- Contain oxidant.
  • Substrate B 1 x 7 ml--- Contain TMB. TMB interacts with HRP, eliciting the solution turns blue.
  • Stop Solution 1 x 10 ml --- Add stop solution and stop the color development. The solution color immediately turns from blue to yellow.
  • Adhesive Strip (For 96 wells) 4 --- Cover the microtiter plate when incubation.
  • An instruction manual
Materials not provided
  • A microplate reader capable of measuring absorbance at 450 nm, with the correction wavelength set at 600 nm or 630 nm.
  • An incubator can provide stable incubation conditions up to 37°C±5°C.
  • Centrifuge
  • Vortex
  • Squirt bottle, manifold dispenser, or automated microplate washer
  • Absorbent paper for blotting the microtiter plate
  • 50-300ul multi-channel micropipette
  • Pipette tips
  • Single-channel micropipette with different ranges
  • 100ml and 500ml graduated cylinders
  • Deionized or distilled water
  • Timer
  • Test tubes for dilution
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

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Target Data

Function Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Gene References into Functions
  1. genetic association studies in population of children in Japan: Data suggest that mutations in INS, HNF1A, HNF4A, and HNF1B likely play critical roles in children with insulin-requiring autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes in the population studied. (INS = insulin; HNF1A = HNF1 homeobox A; HNF4A = hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha; HNF1B = HNF1 homeobox B) PMID: 28597946
  2. Insulin signaling pathway protects neuronal cell lines by Sirt3 mediated IRS2 activation. PMID: 29411439
  3. Insulin promotes progression of colon cancer by upregulation of ACAT1. PMID: 29793481
  4. Data suggest that serum leptin and insulin levels are associated with retinal microvasculature parameters in healthy children and adolescents; higher cardiometabolic risk factors (high serum leptin, insulin, and insulin resistance) correlate with wider retinal arterioles. PMID: 29303782
  5. Data, including studies involving single-cell analysis, suggest that insulin-secreting cells exhibit 3 major states regarding unfolded protein response (UPR): (1) low UPR and low insulin gene expression; (2) low UPR and high insulin gene expression; (3) high UPR and low insulin gene expression. The latter state promotes cell proliferation; UPR appears to mediate recovery from ER stress due to high insulin production. PMID: 29950394
  6. Data confirm that cord blood levels of ghrelin, leptin, and insulin of term newborns correlate with anthropometric parameters at birth (birth weight, head circumference, etc.). PMID: 29320365
  7. Glucose-dependent de-SUMOylation of tomosyn1 at K298 releases syntaxin1A and controls the amplification of exocytosis in concert with a recently-identified tomosyn1-interacting partner; the Ca(2+)-binding protein secretagogin, which dissociates from tomosyn1 in response to Ca(2+)-raising stimuli and is required for insulin granule trafficking and exocytosis downstream of Ca(2+) influx. PMID: 28325894
  8. results indicate that higher cerebrospinal fluid insulin levels are related to impairment in cognitive performance and biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease among women and non-carriers of the APOE varepsilon4 allele PMID: 29154275
  9. single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the 1:2 (4.3 A) and 1:1 (7.4 A) complexes of the insulin receptor ECD dimer with insulin PMID: 29512653
  10. Data suggest that higher plasma levels of ceramide with saturated fatty acid are associated with higher fasting levels of insulin and insulin resistance; in contrast, higher levels of sphingomyelin with saturated fatty acid are associated with lower fasting insulin and insulin resistance; this study was conduced in American Indians in AZ, OK, SD, and ND. PMID: 29588286
  11. in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, higher leptin secretion may exert a direct effect on beta cell function leading to more insulin sensitivity PMID: 29252126
  12. Identify a novel proinsulin-associated locus and demonstrate that whilst proinsulin levels are associated with carotid intima media thickness measures, proinsulin per se is unlikely to have a causative effect on cIMT. PMID: 29040868
  13. Data suggest that positive association exists between up-regulated serum C-peptide levels and risks of pre-diabetes and diabetes type 2 among Chinese women with prior gestational diabetes. PMID: 28919328
  14. Data suggest that both a KATP channel-dependent triggering pathway (that induces a [Ca2+]i rise in beta-cells) and an amplifying pathway (that augments the effect of Ca2+ on exocytosis) are crucial for control of insulin secretion in human islets; these studies used cultured pancreatic islets from multiorgan donors exposed to a variety of pharmacological agents. PMID: 28116849
  15. In the present study, the protein inhibitor of activated STAT Y (PIASy) was identified as a novel Isl1-interacting protein. Furthermore, PIASy and Isl1 upregulate insulin gene expression and insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner by activating the insulin promoter. PMID: 28000708
  16. Muscle-related indices positively correlated with C-peptide, which showed endogenous insulin reserve PMID: 29132475
  17. Data suggest that corticosterone and cortisol suppress voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel function and Ca2+ fluxes in beta-cells; however, insulin secretion, maximal ATP/ADP responses to glucose, and beta-cell identity/differentiation are all unaffected by these glucocorticoids. PMID: 29203512
  18. In long-standing models, glucose is viewed as a primary stimulator of insulin secretion; recent models postulate that glucose activates a cell-surface receptor, namely the glucose-sensing receptor, on insulin-secreting cells. [REVIEW] PMID: 28880472
  19. Data suggest that beta-cell insulin secretory granules, unlike neuronal synaptic vesicles, exhibit biphasic secretory mechanism that requires additional distinct features in exocytosis; beta-cell insulin exocytotic events appear to be mediated by Munc18/SNARE protein complexes distinct from those involved in predocking/fusion of insulin secretory granules with plasma membrane. [REVIEW] PMID: 28880475
  20. Data suggest that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion involves interplay between metabolic and cationic events involving small G-proteins; activation of these signaling proteins promotes cytoskeletal remodeling, transport and docking of insulin granules on the plasma membrane for exocytotic secretion of insulin. [REVIEW] PMID: 28880478
  21. Data suggest that insulin secretory granule turnover consists of several highly regulated processes allowing for proper beta-cell function and insulin secretion. [REVIEW] PMID: 28880479
  22. Data suggest that cAMP acts as amplifier of insulin secretion triggered by Ca2+ elevation in beta-cells; both messengers are also positive modulators of glucagon release from alpha-cells, but in this case cAMP signaling may be the important regulator and Ca2+ signaling has a more permissive role. [REVIEW] PMID: 28466587
  23. These data implicate the existence of beta cells enriched for inefficient insulin/C-peptide production in type 1 diabetes patients, potentially less susceptible to autoimmune destruction. PMID: 28877460
  24. Serum C-peptide levels were strongly associated with increased serum TG and reduced HDL-C levels in the elderly.Our results suggest that serum C-peptide increases the risk of CVD via a pathway that increases TG or decreases HDL-C levels. PMID: 28869884
  25. Proinsulin is involved in regulating the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. PMID: 28758130
  26. This article reviews the roles of CFTR in epithelial cells, its regulatory role in insulin secretion, and a mechanism of CFTR regulation by insulin. [review] PMID: 28805732
  27. During HCV infection, adiponectin affects insulin sensitivity through triglycerides and after viral clearance, adiponectin levels were directly associated with insulin sensitivity and decreased upon improved hepatic fibrosis. PMID: 28267407
  28. Data suggest that, in type 2 diabetes, the reduction in insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells can be considered, at least in part, to result from an imbalance of beta-cell renewal and apoptosis. [REVIEW] PMID: 28242267
  29. the severity of metabolic syndrome exhibits long-term links to levels of insulin and adiponectin, suggesting potential genetic and environmental influences on insulin resistance over time PMID: 27133621
  30. Data suggest that secretion of insulin by beta-cells is related to insulin resistance in complex manner; insulin secretion is associated with type 2 diabetes in obese and non-obese subjects, but insulin resistance is associated with type 2 diabetes only in non-obese subjects. Chinese subjects were used in these studies. PMID: 27012460
  31. Results suggest that optimised lentiviral transduction of the insulin gene into primary canine mesenchymal stromal cells (cMSCs) renders these cells capable of secreting insulin over both the short- and long-term, in sufficient quantities in vitro to support their potential use in insulin gene therapy. PMID: 27572655
  32. C-peptide-based measurements of insulin secretion are appropriate for assessing beta-cell function in SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin-treated participants. PMID: 27127999
  33. Many studies provided evidence that circulating unmethylated INS DNA can be a potential noninvasive biomarker of beta cell mass loss in type 1 Diabetes. [review] PMID: 28450972
  34. Upon stratifying the participants into tertiles by the Matsuda index, we observed an inhibitory relationship between the genetic risk score (GRS) and insulin secretion in low insulin sensitive but not in high insulin sensitive controls and treatment-naive Type 2 diabetes. PMID: 27280334
  35. Family income at birth, non-white maternal skin color, and rapid weight gain between two and four years of age were associated with high levels of C-peptide. PMID: 28693499
  36. The possibility of using insulin as a biomarker to guide insulin-targeted interventions also should be taken into account PMID: 27388232
  37. the concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their association with prostate size in patients with BPH PMID: 28300542
  38. C-peptide was associated with cardiovascular mortality independently of known diabetes status in a cohort of patients with chronic atherosclerotic disease. PMID: 28565926
  39. Elevated Unmethylated Insulin DNA Is associated with beta cell death. PMID: 27643615
  40. These results provide new information on the role of human islet-derived extracellular vesicles in the regulation of insulin expression in differentiating induced pluripotent stem cell clusters. PMID: 29117231
  41. our experiments reveal an insulin-dependent activation of MCH neurons in obesity, which contributes via distinct mechanisms to the manifestation of impaired locomotor activity and insulin resistance. PMID: 27926856
  42. These data support a role for islet NGF in fine-tuning insulin secretion. PMID: 27424144
  43. Data suggest early peaks in glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon secretion/blood level together trigger exaggerated insulinotropic response (high insulin secretion/level) to eating and consequent hypoglycaemia in patients with postprandial hypoglycaemia as a postoperative complication following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes; this retrospective cohort study was conducted in London. PMID: 28855269
  44. Studies on the susceptibility to aggregation of truncated analogs of insulin amyloidogenic core show three groups of peptides. Truncation of A13-A419 fragment shows that fibrous structures are formed by all peptides bearing (13)H-LeuTyr-OH(14). Propensity to aggregation was found for (16)H-TyrLeu-OH(17) B12-B17 fragment. PMID: 27463367
  45. Insulin and PI3K/AKT signaling are essential for RNase 7 expression and increased infection risks in diabetic patients may be secondary to suppressed RNase 7 production. PMID: 27401534
  46. A common variant, i.e., single nucleotide polymorphism rs6741949, in the DPP4 gene interacts with body adiposity and negatively affects glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. PMID: 28750074
  47. Insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells increases after adrenalectomy for aldosterone-producing adenomas; adrenalectomy in these patients prevents primary aldosteronism; such data suggest that aldosterone excess inhibits insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells. This retrospective study was conducted in Japan. PMID: 28111382
  48. Results indicate that insulin scores, but not glycemic scores, were positively associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality. PMID: 28268248
  49. Data suggest that higher dietary intake of glucose, but not of fructose or of sucrose, is associated with insulin resistance; no associations were observed for high dietary intakes of glucose, fructose, or sucrose with loss of function of pancreatic beta-cells in secretion of insulin. This study was conducted in the Netherlands among patients newly diagnosed with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. PMID: 28406435
  50. Higher maternal total n-3 PUFAs and specifically DHA levels during pregnancy are associated with higher childhood total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin levels. PMID: 27919543

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Involvement in disease Hyperproinsulinemia (HPRI); Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2 (IDDM2); Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal (PNDM); Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 10 (MODY10)
Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Insulin family
Database Links

HGNC: 6081

OMIM: 125852

KEGG: hsa:3630

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000250971

UniGene: Hs.272259

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