Rat Amyloid beta A4 protein(APP) ELISA kit

Instructions
Code CSB-EL001950RA
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein
Alternative Names AppAmyloid-beta A4 protein ELISA kit; ABPP ELISA kit; APP ELISA kit; Alzheimer disease amyloid A4 protein homolog ELISA kit; Amyloid precursor protein ELISA kit; Amyloid-beta precursor protein ELISA kit; Amyloidogenic glycoprotein ELISA kit; AG) [Cleaved into: N-APP; Soluble APP-alpha ELISA kit; S-APP-alpha); Soluble APP-beta ELISA kit; S-APP-beta); C99 ELISA kit; Beta-secretase C-terminal fragment ELISA kit; Beta-CTF); Amyloid-beta protein 42 ELISA kit; Abeta42 ELISA kit; Beta-APP42); Amyloid-beta protein 40 ELISA kit; Abeta40 ELISA kit; Beta-APP40); C83 ELISA kit; Alpha-secretase C-terminal fragment ELISA kit; Alpha-CTF); P3(42); P3(40); C80; Gamma-secretase C-terminal fragment 59 ELISA kit; Gamma-CTF(59)); Gamma-secretase C-terminal fragment 57 ELISA kit; Gamma-CTF(57)); Gamma-secretase C-terminal fragment 50 ELISA kit; Gamma-CTF(50)); C31] ELISA kit
Abbreviation APP
Uniprot No. P08592
Species Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 15.6 ng/mL-1000 ng/mL
Sensitivity 3.9 ng/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Neuroscience
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.  
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.    
             
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of rat APP in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
  Sample Serum(n=4)  
1:1 Average % 84  
Range % 80-92  
1:2 Average % 92  
Range % 88-99  
1:4 Average % 100  
Range % 95-107  
1:8 Average % 90  
Range % 86-95  
Recovery
The recovery of rat APP spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range  
Serum (n=5) 93 87-97  
EDTA plasma (n=4) 95 90-101  
             
             
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
ng/ml OD1 OD2 Average Corrected  
1000 2.557 2.520 2.539 2.429  
500 1.961 1.876 1.919 1.809  
250 1.197 1.204 1.201 1.091  
125 0.748 0.809 0.779 0.669  
62.5 0.436 0.446 0.441 0.331  
31.2 0.278 0.259 0.269 0.159  
15.6 0.206 0.209 0.208 0.098  
0 0.112 0.107 0.110    
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 5-7 working days

Target Data

Function Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions (By similarity). Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibit Notch signaling through interaction with Numb (By similarity). Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity. Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1 (By similarity). May be involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV (By similarity). The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu(2+) ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1 (By similarity).
Gene References into Functions
  1. These results, in Wistar rats, provide experimental support for the hypothesis that certain risk factors, such as energy metabolism dysfunction or the aging process itself, may increase vulnerability to beta-amyloid protein (Abeta). Hippocampal region is more susceptible to Abeta and its effect increases with age in relation to the neocortex. PMID: 29624358
  2. Abeta 25-35 was found to induce PC12 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Moreover, Abeta 25-35 also caused dose-dependent disintegration of the cytoskeleton (P<0.05). PMID: 29436599
  3. Andrographolide (ANDRO) reduced inflammation-mediated neuronal damage by blocking inflammatory responses of microglial cells to Abeta(1-42), suggesting ANDRO may be an effective agent in modulating neuroinflammatory process in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 28669260
  4. alanine in APP- intracellular domain(ICD) and the proline in APLP2-ICD lie directly behind a conserved caspase cleavage site PMID: 26921470
  5. These data suggest that methylation change in BDNF exon is involved in the regulation of BDNF expression by Abeta or SAM, and further support the view of specific epigenetic modifications of a certain BDNF gene transcript. PMID: 29305263
  6. Results from the present study indicated that pioglitazone may improve insulin sensitivity and ameliorate Abeta42 accumulation in rats with dietinduced IR by regulating AKT/GSK3beta activation, suggesting that pioglitazone may be a promising drug for AD treatment. PMID: 28447730
  7. Dynamic transport of Abeta aggregates is only observed between axon terminal and cell body. In addition to differential cellular uptake, more Abeta-peptide secretion is detected significantly from axons than from dendritic side. PMID: 28121396
  8. Results show that concerted signaling by both APP and Abeta is necessary for aberrant neuronal cell cycle entry. Thus, APP plays a central role in promotion of neurodegeneration, through activation of Ras-ERK signaling axis as well as GSK-3, and interfering with these signaling events would impede cell cycle reentry and neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 28374012
  9. Lynx1 and Abeta1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. PMID: 27460145
  10. increased APP and/or beta-CTF impact the endocytic pathway to disrupt NGF trafficking and signaling, resulting in trophic deficits in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. PMID: 27064279
  11. results establish a novel toxic impact ofAbeta oligomers on neuronal metabolism and suggest that Abeta oligomers-induced, NMDA receptor-mediated AMPK inhibition may play a key role in early brain metabolic defects in AD. PMID: 28302722
  12. The protein level of Abeta in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was severity and timedependent during the acute phase in rats with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Monitoring the level of Abeta protein in serum may improve the evaluation of SCI severity and the neuron functional status following SCI. PMID: 28259979
  13. O3 exposure (0.25 ppm) induced a significant increase of Syntaxin 5 and accumulation of betaA42 peptide in the reticulum in cells of the dentate gyrus PMID: 27366738
  14. results indicate that specifically "trapping" low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Abeta42-oligomer recognition and removal. PMID: 26510576
  15. Results indicate that improving synaptic soluble AbetaPPalpha availability at synapses helps in reducing the functional NMDAR-related deregulation of hippocampal networks linked to aging PMID: 26402095
  16. High glucose leads to the increased expression of genes related to Abeta production, resulting in the accumulation of Abeta in the lens. PMID: 27028062
  17. Autoimmune Optic Neuritis Is Associated with Altered APP Cleavage in Neurons and Up-Regulation of p53 PMID: 26426258
  18. Redox-mediated posttranslational modification of brain proteins link Abeta and hyperglycaemia to cognitive dysfunction in metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer disease. PMID: 26743041
  19. This study indicates that interfering intracellular Abeta especially mitochondrial Abeta accumulation, together with ameliorating Abeta-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, may contribute to the protective effects of huperzine A against Abeta neurotoxicity. PMID: 26024517
  20. Syt-1 and Syt-9 regulate endogenous APP-CTF and Abeta levels in PC12 cells. Secreted sAPPbeta levels were significantly reduced in PC12 cells lacking Syt-1 expression. PMID: 26202512
  21. Results show that downregulation of let-7d might contribute to isoflurane-induced learning and memory impairment through upregulating its target APP, and increasing the production of Abeta subsequently. PMID: 25799420
  22. Exposure to As-, Cd-, and Pb-mixture induces Abeta, amyloidogenic APP processing and cognitive impairments via oxidative stress-dependent neuroinflammation in young rats. PMID: 25288670
  23. Data suggests that APP is important in regulating intestinal cholesterol uptake in a fashion dependent upon specific proteolytic pathways. PMID: 25742317
  24. The soluble extracellular fragment of neuroligin-1 protects synapses in neurons damaged by ABETA oligomers. PMID: 26325471
  25. The present study indicates that Abeta-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. PMID: 25536033
  26. Incubation of brain homogenates with 70 microM hydrogen peroxide significantly influenced the profile of Abeta binding proteins and 0.1 mM isatin decreased the number of identified Abeta binding proteins. PMID: 25551598
  27. Abeta-40 Y10F exhibited remarkably decreased neurotoxicity compared to Abeta-40 which could be partly due to the reduced generation of hydrogen peroxide. PMID: 22754299
  28. The results of this study provide the first direct demonstration that AbetaPP is mostly distributed among glutamatergic rather than GABAergic or cholinergic terminals of the adult rat hippocampus. PMID: 24531160
  29. report we describe a novel neuroprotective function of mGlu3 receptors related to their ability to promote the non-amyloidogenic pathway of APP cleavage in astrocytes, thus enhancing sAPPalpha production PMID: 24291464
  30. Rodent-Abeta staining is present and increased after juvenile traumatic brain injury around cerebral blood microvessels, and the diameter of those is decreased by 25% and 34% at 2 and 6 months, respectively, without significant angiogenesis. PMID: 25052558
  31. Oxidative stress served as the key trigger to down-regulate miR-107 by cell- derived soluble Abeta. PMID: 24595404
  32. present results suggest that the amyloid peptide exhibits a protective antioxidant role in biological systems, but also has toxic actions independent of oxidative stress PMID: 23041348
  33. Both voltage-activated Ca2+ channel and NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation in vivo are strongly inhibited by Abeta. PMID: 24298149
  34. the existence of a structurally related family of quasi-fibrillar conformers of Abeta42, which is stabilized both by curcumin and by Zn(2+.) PMID: 24599958
  35. analysis of the role of JIP1 in APP transport; knockdown of JIP1 did not affect either amyloid precursor protein transport or amyloid-beta peptide production PMID: 23825109
  36. Data suggest that the brain expression of neprilysin may promote amyloid beta-protein (Abeta)deposition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID: 24508800
  37. Neurodegeneration may occur in a retrograde fashion from axon terminals near beta-amyloid plaques which may spread through brain regions in cortical neuron cultures. PMID: 24114864
  38. APP is an independently operating cell adhesion molecule PMID: 23691241
  39. These data present novel insights into the subsynaptic localization of APPs PMID: 23815291
  40. Abeta42 globulomers have an antiparallel beta-sheet arrangement PMID: 23687299
  41. processing of amyloid precursor protein in cells undergoing apoptosis PMID: 23469123
  42. Identification of the minimal zinc-binding center in natural isoforms of amyloid-beta domain 1-16 using ESI-MS PMID: 23888782
  43. PuF may regulate the APP gene promoter PMID: 23368879
  44. results showed that EMP exposure can cause long-term impairment in impaired cognition and memory of rats, resulting in AD-like symptoms; this may be induced by enhancing oxidative stress and is related to autophagy dysfunction PMID: 23523687
  45. The CentA1-Ras-Elk-1 signaling pathway acts on mitochondria to regulate dendritic spine density and synaptic plasticity in response to Abeta in hippocampal neurons. PMID: 23516302
  46. Prion protein-mediated toxicity of amyloid-beta oligomers requires lipid rafts and the transmembrane LRP1 PMID: 23386614
  47. Neuronal binding and hippocampal neurotransmission were found to be suitable to account for the synaptotoxicity to different App assemblies, based on the stability of the applied App aggregates in these settings. PMID: 23374097
  48. Early brain injury alters the blood-brain barrier phenotype in parallel with beta-amyloid and cognitive changes in adulthood. PMID: 23149553
  49. S-nitrosylation pathway wherein Cdk5/NOS1 interaction enhances S-nitrosylation of Cdk5, mediates mitochondrial dysfunction and synaptic loss during the App etiology of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 22874667
  50. C1q-induced LRP1B and GPR6 proteins expressed early in Alzheimer disease mouse models, are essential for the C1q-mediated protection against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity PMID: 23150673
  51. Amyloid-beta acts as a regulator of neurotransmitter release disrupting the interaction between synaptophysin and VAMP2 PMID: 22905234
  52. our results suggest that Asp664 cleavage of APP leads to tau hyperphosphorylation at specific epitopes by modulating PP2A activity PMID: 23020770
  53. findings show that amyloid precursor protein (APP) and calsyntenin-1 are co-transported through axons, that loss of calsyntenin-1 disrupts axonal transport of APP and that calsyntenin-1 loss also leads to altered APP processing and increased production of Abeta PMID: 22434822
  54. a biochemical link between Hsp40 expression and Abeta(42) proteostasis that is cell specific PMID: 22666389
  55. These results reveal the mechanistic basis by which ubiquilin-1 regulates APP maturation. PMID: 22847417
  56. A novel pathogenetic mechanism underlying Abeta oligomer-mediated white matter degeneration could impair myelin maintenance and remyelination by adult oligodendrocytes. PMID: 20594620
  57. Zn2+-Abeta40 complexes form metastable quasi-spherical oligomers that are cytotoxic to cultured hippocampal neurons. PMID: 22528492
  58. Intraperitoneal injection of AlCl3 increased expression of APP695 mRNA in rat spinal cords. PMID: 20568471
  59. Abeta reduces epoxygenase activity differentially in a region-specific and cell-specific manner. PMID: 21843605
  60. Results suggest that different aluminum compounds may impact the expression of APP in brain and liver tissues. PMID: 22209725
  61. Amyloid beta peptide 1-42 disturbs intracellular calcium homeostasis through activation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors PMID: 22177709
  62. Amyloid beta protein exhibited a promotion effect in the nitrotyrosination of synaptic proteins prepared from rat brain. PMID: 21915767
  63. Abeta mediates inhibition of the DNA-PK-dependent nonhomologous end joining pathway contributing to the accumulation of DSBs that, if not efficiently repaired, may lead to the neuronal loss observed in AD. PMID: 22139836
  64. Down-regulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter 2 (Abca2) reduces amyloid-beta production by altering Nicastrin maturation and intracellular localization. PMID: 22086926
  65. In a demonstration using astrocytes as a potential source of amyloid precursor protein, APP production and secretion are regulated by activation of purinergic P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors coupled to protein kinase signaling pathways. PMID: 21300137
  66. microglial phagocytosis was the primary cause of neuronal death induced by nanomolar Abeta. PMID: 21903584
  67. ubiquilin-1 chaperone activity is necessary to regulate the production of APP and its fragments and that diminished ubiquilin-1 levels may contribute to AD pathogenesis. PMID: 21852239
  68. These results indicate that psychological stress induced by occlusal disharmony reversibly induces amyloid-beta 40 and 42 in the rat hippocampus through the glucocorticoid signal. PMID: 21751079
  69. up-regulated FOXRED2 inhibits proteasome activity by interfering with 26S proteasome assembly to contribute to Abeta neurotoxicity via an endoplasmic reticulum stress response. PMID: 20972601
  70. Cell viability studies of SH-SY5Y cells and rat primary hippocampal neurons showed that exogenous heme can protect the cells by reducing cytotoxicity in the presence of Cu(2+) and/or amyloid beta (1-40). PMID: 21523435
  71. These results suggest a possible involvement of APP and Abeta in the death of retinal ganglion cell challenged by hypoxia. PMID: 21640074
  72. increased central Ang II levels play an important role in beta amyloid production during stress PMID: 21297982
  73. Results demonstrate a deregulation of Cdk5 phosphorylation in APP-transfected cells. PMID: 21457712
  74. nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) cleaves amyloid-beta PMID: 21187975
  75. Naoling decoction can distinctly improve the learning and memory ability, and reduce the expression of APP in Alzheimer's disease model rats. PMID: 20543465
  76. an enormous and rapid production and extracellular release of Abeta and the soluble APP ectodomain. PMID: 21454701
  77. Findings demonstrate that HSV-1 infection of neuronal cells can generate multiple APP fragments with well-documented neurotoxic potentials. PMID: 21085580
  78. liposomal DHA is able to restore or maintain physiological membrane properties, which are required for neuroprotective sAPPalpha secretion and autocrine modulation of neuronal survival PMID: 21036142
  79. Cu2+ ions accelerate the kinetics of fiber formation and promote cell toxicity of amyloid-{beta} from Alzheimer disease PMID: 20974842
  80. Data show that hypoactivity of the thyroid signalling pathway in the hippocampus induced an increase in the APP770-751/APP695 ratio accompanied by modifications in the amyloidogenic APP processing pathway, leading to increased Abeta peptides. PMID: 20403092
  81. metallothioneins represented by MT-2A capable of protecting against Abeta aggregation and toxicity PMID: 20711450
  82. Resveratrol selectively remodels soluble oligomers and fibrils of amyloid Abeta into off-pathway conformers PMID: 20511235
  83. These results suggest that Abeta oligomers induce memory impairment via dynamin 1 degradation, which may imply that dynamin 1 degradation is one of the causes of synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 20127811
  84. miR-101 is a negative regulator of APP expression and affects the accumulation of Abeta, suggesting a possible role for miR-101 in neuropathological conditions PMID: 20395292
  85. astrocyte activation might have a critical role in the mechanisms of Abeta-induced neurodegeneration PMID: 19879263
  86. Data suggest that amyloid beta disruption of mitochondrial trafficking could contribute to AMPA receptor removal and trafficking defects leading to synaptic inhibition. PMID: 20346152
  87. There are a multitude of signaling pathways in neurons reported to be altered by amyloid-beta, several of which could potentially modulate co fi lin activity. PMID: 19542631
  88. Aph-1 associates directly with full-length and C-terminal fragments of gamma-secretase substrates PMID: 20145246
  89. These results support a model of disease pathogenesis in which amyloid beta oligomers interact selectively with neurotransmission pathways at excitatory synapses, resulting in synaptic loss via facilitated endocytosis. PMID: 20032460
  90. study indicated that activation of NOS/NO signaling system could trigger amyloid-beta production through BACE1 pathway during and after acute focal cerebral ischemia in aged rats PMID: 20043977
  91. Abeta(25-35) significantly increased cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of adult rats after intracerebroventricular administration. PMID: 20033317
  92. Our data suggest that betaAP acutely affects proper hippocampal function through a Fyn-dependent mechanism. We propose that such alteration might be related to the cognitive impairment observed, at least, during the early phases of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 19294646
  93. JNK-c-Jun-FasL-caspase-dependent extrinsic apoptotic pathway plays a critical role in mediating Abeta(31-35)-induced apoptosis of cultured neurons. PMID: 19927172
  94. Our results indicate that continuous overproduction of Abeta at dendrites or axons acts locally to reduce the number and plasticity of synapses. PMID: 20037574
  95. Collectively, these findings highlight differences in brain and circulating levels of androgens during aging, and identify an inverse correlation with beta-amyloid levels that may be relevant to Alzheimer's disease risk. PMID: 19829160
  96. Expression levels of beta-amyloid precursor protein in diffuse axonal injury are time-dependent. PMID: 16259359
  97. Estrogen lowers Alzheimer beta-amyloid generation by stimulating trans-Golgi network vesicle biogenesis PMID: 11823458
  98. short-lasting impulse noise induces the expression of immediate early gene products such as beta-APP PMID: 11939505
  99. Mechanism of membrane depolarization caused by the Alzheimer Abeta1-42 peptide PMID: 12054502
  100. Eliminating membrane depolarization caused by the Alzheimer peptide Abeta(1-42, aggr.). PMID: 12054503

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Subcellular Location Membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein, Membrane, clathrin-coated pit
Protein Families APP family
Tissue Specificity In the brain, non-L-APP isoforms are expressed in neurons, isoform APP695 being the predominant form. In astrocytes and microglial cells, almost 50% is L-isoform (appican).
Database Links

KEGG: rno:54226

STRING: 10116.ENSRNOP00000041613

UniGene: Rn.2104

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