Rat Androgen receptor(AR) ELISA kit

Instructions
Code CSB-EL001975RA
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name androgen receptor
Alternative Names Ar ELISA Kit; Nr3c4Androgen receptor ELISA Kit; Dihydrotestosterone receptor ELISA Kit; Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4 ELISA Kit
Abbreviation AR
Uniprot No. P15207
Species Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates
Detection Range 23.5 pg/mL-1500 pg/mL
Sensitivity 5.8 pg/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Cancer
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of rat AR in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
  Sample Serum(n=4)
1:1 Average % 106
Range % 98-111
1:2 Average % 102
Range % 95-107
1:4 Average % 97
Range % 88-102
1:8 Average % 104
Range % 98-109
Recovery
The recovery of rat AR spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range
Serum (n=5) 103 94-109
EDTA plasma (n=4) 97 87-101
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
pg/ml OD1 OD2 Average Corrected
1500 2.198 2.105 2.152 2.042
750 1.844 1.803 1.824 1.714
375 1.426 1.376 1.401 1.291
187.5 1.120 1.087 1.104 0.994
94 0.650 0.641 0.646 0.536
47 0.470 0.456 0.463 0.353
23.5 0.315 0.307 0.311 0.201
0 0.108 0.112 0.110  
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 5-7 working days

Target Data

Function Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3 (By similarity).
Gene References into Functions
  1. Study found a putative androgen receptor splice variant in a dopaminergic N27 cell line and in several brain regions (substantia nigra pars compacta, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus) from gonadally intact and gonadectomized (young and middle-aged) male rats. This putative splice variant protein has a molecular weight of 45 kDa and lacks an N-terminal domain and was highly expressed in all brain regions examined. PMID: 28856243
  2. Cynanchum wilfordii root extract down-regulates expression of 5 alpha reductase and androgen receptor, slowing the progression of testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID: 28953224
  3. Compared to the control group, enhanced germ cell apoptosis was observed in the ethanol-treated rats (ETRs) in association with upregulation of iNOS and reduced expression of androgen receptor protein levels in SCs, which were resistant to apoptosis. PMID: 28505146
  4. Suggest the potential involvement of altered Fgf10/Fgfr2/AR signaling in pathogenesis of anorectal malformations induced by di-n-butyl phthalate. PMID: 26514922
  5. Androgen receptor silences thioredoxin-interacting protein and competitively inhibits glucocorticoid receptor-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic beta-Cells.( PMID: 25639671
  6. DHT activated AR inhibits gene transactivation by C/EBPdelta, and transgenic C/EBPdelta expression inhibits AR activity PMID: 26187065
  7. These data suggest that the AR is toxic as a full-length protein, challenging the notion of polyglutamine protein fragment-associated toxicity by redefining the role of AR proteolysis in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy pathogenesis. PMID: 25795778
  8. There was no association between ErbB2-IR and the androgen receptor (AR)-IR in the tumours, but an interaction between the two parameters was seen with respect to their association with the tumour stage. PMID: 25215939
  9. findings demonstrate beneficial effects of enhancing the transcriptional function of the ligand-activated polyQ AR and indicate that the SUMOylation pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in SBMA. PMID: 25607844
  10. The androgen receptor binds to cannabinoid CB1 receptor promoter in trigeminal ganglia. PMID: 24055403
  11. Data indicate that knee passive range of motion (ROM), relaxin receptor isoforms Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 expression were significantly reduced following treatment with testosterone, and androgen antagonist flutamide antagonized the testosterone effect. PMID: 24642882
  12. The effect of naringenin and bisphenol A on on male and female vascular smooth muscle cells was evaluated. PMID: 24347325
  13. Lycopene, a potent antioxidant, preserved the epididymis from PCB-induced damage and prevented changes in androgen receptor levels. PMID: 23749762
  14. this study shows that varicocoele downregulates AR expression, upregulates GPER and RACK1. This regulation of AR may play an important role in testicular dysfunction. PMID: 23836701
  15. A small proportion of satellite cells in the levator ani express androgen receptors in significantly greater proportion compared to the adjacent control muscle. PMID: 23239638
  16. 4-Nitrophenol differentially modulated androgen receptor, estrogen receptor-alpha and beta expression in male rat testes. PMID: 24070737
  17. spinal interneurones but not preganglionic neurones involved in the seminal vesicle control in male rats were double-labelled with AR or ER-alpha, and they were mainly located at the parasympathetic level in the spinal cord. PMID: 23414238
  18. Data suggest that androgen/AR signal transduction regulates adult neurogenesis in hippocampus but at a site other than dentate gyrus; androgen/AR signaling is neuroprotective via promotion of neurogenesis and cell survival, not cell proliferation. PMID: 23782943
  19. Data indicate that androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) alters atrial electrophysiology with increased atrial arrhythmogenesis. PMID: 23748361
  20. ARDelta2(Stop) was expressed in rat and gilthead seabream testis, while an ARDelta3 was detected in African clawed frog testis. PMID: 22734680
  21. Data indicate that an enhanced NF-kB immunoexpression was found in the cytoplasm of muscle cells, a weak AR (androgen receptors) immunolabeling was detected in these cells. PMID: 23570504
  22. Euthyroid status during prenatal and early postnatal life is essential to have optimal AR status and metabolic activity at adulthood. PMID: 23104419
  23. Testosterone, but not dihydrotestosterone, stimulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression and the interaction between aryl hydrocarbon receptor and androgen receptor, leading to the stimulation of Lrh-1 expression. PMID: 23689136
  24. The results revealed different distribution pattern of steroid hormone receptors in each one of the prostatic lobes in senescence. PMID: 22541803
  25. Progressive degenerative alterations occurred in the seminiferous tubules after prepubertal epididymal obstruction; nuclei of Sertoli cells were not AR immunostaining in extensively degenerated seminiferous tubules. PMID: 23304817
  26. central AR functions may contribute to normal activity of SNB motoneurons and perineal muscles because mutant mice displayed diminished copulatory behavior and fertility PMID: 22585832
  27. During the androgen sensitivity window (E16-19), the gubernaculum contains few AR, while the inguinal fat pad contains abundant AR that are flutamide-sensitive. After birth, the gubernaculum AR expression increased. PMID: 22152882
  28. ARs play a role in regulating anxiety-related behaviors, as well as corticosterone responses and neural activation following exposure to a mild stressor in rats. PMID: 21801726
  29. expressed in the parosteal layer but not in the periosteum or osteoblasts of the baculum of neonatal rats PMID: 21471296
  30. Gain in transcriptional activity by primate-specific coevolution of melanoma antigen-A11 and its interaction site in androgen receptor. PMID: 21730049
  31. The upregulation of AR and 3betaHSD in testosterone-impaired Leydig cells steroidogenesis could be the possible mechanism that maintains and prevents loss of steroidogenic function. PMID: 21427060
  32. The excessive alcohol consumption caused morphological and molecular changes in the coagulating gland, characterizing the inverse relation of AR and IGFR-1 localization. PMID: 20605618
  33. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression and activity of aromatase, androgen and estrogen receptors in peripheral target tissues in diabetes. PMID: 20064538
  34. immunolocalization of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogense, cytochrome P450c17 and androgen receptor were investigated in rat cumuli oophori of late pre-ovulatory follicles and in post-ovulatory COCs bearing fertilized oocytes PMID: 19775733
  35. androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) concentrations in the thyroid glands of neonatal rats PMID: 20670640
  36. Activation of androgen receptors in the posterior dorsal part of the medial amygdala plays a critical role in the expression of the preference by male rats for estrous odors over male odors. PMID: 20430028
  37. In rats and hamsters, nuclear androgen receptors are not required for androgen self-administration. Furthermore, androgen self-administration may be mediated by plasma membrane receptors. PMID: 20137860
  38. data define AR as a direct Brn-3a interactor and verify a simple interacting protein prediction methodology that is likely to be useful for many other proteins PMID: 20228055
  39. Perinatal hypothyroidism results in hyperactivity and anti-anxiety effects on adolescent rats. The decreased level of AR mRNA expression in hippocampus contributes to the change of behavioral ability in adolescent male rats. PMID: 18546532
  40. Endogenous autophagy only slightly alters nuclear mutant AR aggregation compared to substantial effects on cytoplasmic AR aggregation. PMID: 19770590
  41. Developmental profiles of TSH, sex steroids, and their receptors in the thyroid and their relevance to thyroid growth in immature rats PMID: 11755178
  42. data demonstrate that aberrant hypermethylation in the AR promoter region may play a critical role in AR expression in rat prostate cancers PMID: 11992622
  43. crosstalk between the Neu proto-oncogene and androgen receptor signaling pathways in the growth of both the normal and cancerous mammary epithelium PMID: 12150826
  44. Sciatic endoneurial fibroblasts stain prominently for AR, with some endothelial cells also AR(+). Cells within peripheral nerve have ARs and may, therefore, mediate some of the effects of androgens on neuromuscular systems. PMID: 12210844
  45. sex steroids up-regulate their own receptors in the thyroid PMID: 12441185
  46. The distribution of androgen receptor and its coexistence with gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor in rat submaxillary glands PMID: 12479044
  47. androgen receptors are present in axons and dendrites of the rat brain PMID: 12865346
  48. The level of androgen receptor expression was specific to the cortical region, with higher cell density and more androgen receptor mRNA in visual cortex than prefrontal cortex. PMID: 12884268
  49. Androgen receptor induction in conjunction with SRF and RhoA signaling may be an important regulator of gene expression during overload-induced muscle growth. PMID: 14557238
  50. Results suggest that the motor nucleus of the genitofemoral nerve is a target of testosterone and that regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide and androgen receptors in sensory neurons may be involved in testicular descent. PMID: 14567394
  51. androgen receptor mediates prostate cell proliferation in vivo, and nuclear exclusion of p53 is a critical step in prostate growth PMID: 14576152
  52. data show that nuclear factor-kappaB is an activator of androgen receptor gene transcription in Sertoli cells PMID: 14576180
  53. downregulation of sex hormone receptors in aging rat crura is associated with erectile dysfunction. PMID: 14671656
  54. both the androgen receptor interacting domains of the coactivator SRC1 and of the corepressor SMRT compete for interaction with the androgen receptor N-terminus PMID: 15062576
  55. These results suggest that how AR expression in skeletal muscle is influenced by androgens depends not only on the particular muscle but on the particular cell type within that muscle. PMID: 15067718
  56. AR action is important in the development of a sexually dimorphic skeleton and argue for a direct role for androgen transactivation of AR in osteoblasts in modulating skeletal development and homeostasis. PMID: 15131013
  57. The distribution of androgen receptor- expressing cells mapped in the pons and medulla of male rats indicates that androgens may influence numerous cell groups within the brainstem. PMID: 15312892
  58. Ultrastructural evidence that androgen receptors are located at extranuclear sites in the rat hippocampal formation. PMID: 15561432
  59. blood-brain barrier function will be affected by the androgen levels in the brain and/or plasma via AR PMID: 15795901
  60. Androgens potentiate renal cell proliferation and cyst enlargement through ERK1/2-dependent and ERK1/2-independent signaling mechanisms in Han:SPRD. PMID: 15888569
  61. Results suggest that the multiple positive regulatory mechanisms of androgen receptor transactivation by SWI3-related gene product (SRG3) may be important for the rapid proliferation of prostate cells during prostate development and regeneration. PMID: 15923603
  62. AR mediated mechanisms contribute to the masculinization of spatial behaviours and hippocampal morphology, and this may be independent of estrogenic processes. PMID: 15924910
  63. Estradiol regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression was examined and, in the presence of nanomolar testosterone levels, E2 caused a specific reduction in androgen receptor protein expression. PMID: 16223864
  64. both neurons and astrocytes in the male rat forebrain contain ARs, suggesting that androgens, via ARs, may exert effects on both cell types in an age- and region-dependent manner PMID: 16228996
  65. It can be concluded that follicular atresia involves changes in AR distribution which can be demonstrated as an abnormal depletion or persistence of AR. PMID: 16256176
  66. in Tfm male rats with defective androgen receptors, androgens affect hippocampal CA1 spine synapses PMID: 16439462
  67. we have examined the expression and functional aspects of membrane androgen receptor sites in normal rat adrenal chromaffin cells and in the PC12 rat cell line which can differentiate to either a neuronal or to an epithelial phenotype . PMID: 16822503
  68. AR T877A mutation affects both ligand affinity and ligand dose dependency for peptide recruitment and may explain in part the altered responses of antagonists and increased transcriptional activation reported in androgen-independent prostate cancers. PMID: 17223690
  69. The present studies showed differences in AR and 3beta-HSD distribution within various generations of corpora lutea (CL) and within particular regions of the same young CL. PMID: 17257522
  70. Inhibition of experimental arterial thrombosis by androgen at physiological doses and its receptor is mediated via modulation of platelet activation. PMID: 17451792
  71. FoxG1 may interact with AR in vivo, thereby targeting its repressor function specifically to sex hormone signaling. PMID: 17482455
  72. These findings support the role of androgen receptors in the sexual differentiation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. PMID: 17490813
  73. Steroid receptor mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue in male and female rats and in pregnant and lactating females, was analyzed. PMID: 17982270
  74. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that upregulation of aromatase expression occurred in neurons. Our findings suggest that aromatase is regulated through an androgen receptor-mediated system. PMID: 18287941
  75. Androgens, through the action of AR may have a relevant role in the organization and modulation of the nNOS hypothalamic system. PMID: 18582470
  76. expression of androgen receptors in the periaqueductal gray and the descending pathway driving pain inhibition in both male and female rats and may provide a mechanism whereby gonadal steroids modulate pain and morphine potency PMID: 18771723
  77. Functional androgen receptors appear to be critical in establishing these sex differences in medial amygdala astrocyte morphology. PMID: 18853427
  78. analysis of androgen receptor loss in aging and oxidative stress through Myb protooncoprotein-regulated reciprocal chromatin dynamics of p53 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP-1 PMID: 18945670
  79. Inhibin A is capable of feedback antagonizing FSH action on GCs by reducing FSHR expression at ovarian level via a short feedback loop. Transcriptional factor receptors, such as SF-1, AR and DAX-1 were involved in this regulation. PMID: 18992787
  80. rat choroid plexus epithelial cells contain AR mRNA and protein. PMID: 19015999
  81. Results show no change in the total number or density of estrogen receptor alpha-immunoreactive cells, but substantially increased androegn receptor cell numbers during aging. PMID: 19051266
  82. Prostatic growth is influenced by dietary fatty acids with concurrent variation in the expression of AR and PPARgamma PMID: 19143008
  83. AR and ENaC are regulated by sex steroids. PMID: 19224431
  84. AR expression in skeletal muscle fibers is not sufficient to rescue male phenotype of the SNB neuromuscular system & AR in other cell types plays a critical role in sexual differentiation of spinal nucleus of bulbocavernosus neuromuscular system PMID: 19282382
  85. Genetically male (XY) rats with the dysfunctional testicular feminization allele for the androgen receptor (AR) displayed GRP levels in the spinal cord similar to those of females, indicating that androgen normally maintains the system through AR. PMID: 19359382
  86. Both an ESR antagonist and AR agonists prevent penile deformities and infertility suggest that both pathways are involved in estrogen-induced penile disorders. PMID: 19420389
  87. Study demonstrates the presence of androgen receptors in neurons of celiac ganglion and provides evidence for the luteotrophic action of androstenedione via a neural pathway that may be mediated by these receptors. PMID: 19428441
  88. Letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries showed increased androgen receptor expression. PMID: 19698287

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Involvement in disease Defects in Ar are a cause of androgen insensitivity. Rats with this syndrome are called testicular feminized (TFM).
Subcellular Location Nucleus, Cytoplasm
Protein Families Nuclear hormone receptor family, NR3 subfamily
Tissue Specificity Highest levels in the seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and coagulating gland with lower levels in the kidney and levator ani muscle.
Database Links

KEGG: rno:24208

STRING: 10116.ENSRNOP00000009129

UniGene: Rn.9813

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